Behavior Bibliography


Goodall, Jane. In The Shadow of Man. New York: Houghton-Mifflin Press, 1971.

  • The story of Goodall’s behavioral observation of chimpanzees in Africa. Useful appendices in this work include “Stages of Development”, showing infant behaviors at various ages; “Facial Expressions and Calls”, with accompanying drawings; “Weapon and Tool Use”; and “Diet”. Written for the general reader and containing many photos, this book is the story of both the scientist and her subjects.

Goodall, Jane. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Pattern. of Behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986.

  • Filled with information, the book describes the results of more than 30 years of watching chimpanzees in Gombe. It begins with a short history of laboratory research on chimpanzees, including studies aimed at examining their capacity to learn language and other mental abilities. Included is information on what happened to all the chimpanzees featured in Goodall’s other books and videos, but the book concentrates on the results of her research. Details on chimpanzee behavior include communication and social relationships; friendly behavior; grooming; aggression; dominance; reproduction and sexual behavior; territoriality; hunting and meat eating; and tool use. The writing makes the information accessible to both general reader and specialist. This is an excellent resource for more information about chimpanzees.

Jolly, Alison. Evolution of Primate Behavior, 2nd ed. New York: MacMillan, 1985.

  • This intoductory college text looks at primate behavior in an ecological and psychological context. Topics covered include communication and language, growing up in a troop, aggression, play, sexual behavior and tool use. There is much information about the mental abilities of non-human primates. Numerous photographs and anecdotes from the primate literature make it a readable text.

Kummer, Hans. Primate Societies: Group Techniques of Ecological Adaptation. Chicago: Aldine, 1971.

  • In this classic study, Kummer examines daily life in the Hamadryas baboon society. Using this information on one terrestrial primate species, Kummer proceeds to a more generalized characterization of other primate societies, particularly terrestrial species, and discusses how primates adapt to their environment. The book ends with a comparison of humans to non-human primates.

Richard, Alison F. Primates in Nature. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1985.

  • A highly detailed but readable summary of ecological studies on prosimians, monkeys and apes. This book examines such questions as why primates live mainly in the tropics, what primates eat, the relationship between habitat and social organization, and what part primates play in natural communities of plants and other animals. A good source for questions and answers about primate ecology, for readers with an understanding of basic biological concepts.

Smuts, Barbara B, et al., eds. Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1986.

  • This work examines social relationships and behavior across a variety of primate species, reviewing knowledge attained through recent field studies. Forty chapters, by a cross-section of primate experts, look at many aspects of primates, from care of offspring to conservation of primates and their habitats. Not for the casual reader, this book is the best single source to find out what scientists have learned about primates as social animals. The bibliography is extensive.

Strier, Karen B. Faces in the Forest: The Endangered Muriqui Monkeys of Brazil. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

  • Karen Strier describes a decade-long study of the ecology and behavior of the muriqui monkeys of Brazil; the first days of her field studies in the rainforest; and the theoretical framework and methodology on which her research was based. Strier also discusses conservation of this highly endangered species and its habitat.

Strum, Shirley C. Almost Human: A Journey Into The World of Baboons. New York: Random House, 1987.

  • A personal story of Strum’s work with the “Pumphouse Gang” of baboons in Kenya. The personalities and behavior of the baboons is only part of the story. Strum details the problems that develop when baboons and humans clash. Her growing understanding of the needs of humans results in a major change for the baboons — the relocation of entire groups. The book includes many photographs and an illustrated appendix of gestural communication in baboons.

de Waal, Frans B. M. Peacemaking Among Primates. Cambridge, Mass., London: Harvard University Press, 1989.

  • In this award winning book, Frans de Waal presents information on how and why primates, with their reputation for aggressive behavior, are able to maintain social relationships within their group. The social structure and reconciliation behavior of four species — chimpanzees, bonobos, rhesus and stumptail macaques — is presented in a lively and readable style. The final chapter looks at the peacemaking skills of humans.


Among The Wild Chimpanzees. Produced by the National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. Distributed by Vestron Video, PO Box 4000, Stamford, CT 06907. (VHS; colt, sd.; 59 min.: 1984)

  • In 1960, Jane Goodall set out for Tanzania’s remote Gombe Stream Game Reserve to study the behavior of the chimpanzee and has since made extensive observations about the personalities and lives of a wild chimp community. This program looks at two landmark decades of Goodall’s work, including her discovery of chimpanzees making and using tools. Because of its long running time, the video is recommended for grades 9-12. [See Introduction to Chimpanzee Behavior for younger students.]

Animal Families: The Monkey. Produced and distributed by Barr Films, 1201 Schabarum Avenue, PO Box 7878, Irwindale, CA 91706-7878, Phone: (818) 338-7878. Copyrighted by Video Japonica. (VHS; colt, sd.; 11 min.: 1986)

  • This film explores the life of the macaque — the use of fingers and thumbs to manipulate food and to groom one another; feeding habits; climbing ability; social organization; parental care; and a degree of intelligence that enables simple problem solving. The film illustrates the macaque’s food and habitat, and follows a troop’s movement from highland forests to lower elevations. Recommended for grades 3-6.

Baboons [Zoo Animals in the Wild series]. Produced and distributed by Coronet Films and Video, 108 Wilmot Road, Deerfield, IL 60015. (VHS; colt, sd.; 7 min.: 1981)

  • A young narrator introduces a baboon troop as it searches for food and avoids predators. Baboons are shown foraging on the ground and in trees, fighting and chasing, grooming, playing, climbing and feeding. Followup questions are included with the video. An excellent video for grades K-3.

Baboon Behavior. Produced by the Dept. of Anthropology and Extension Media Center, University of California – Berkeley. Distributed by the Extension Media Center, UC – Berkeley, 2223 Fulton St., Berkeley, CA 94720. (VHS; colt sd.; 31 min.: 1960)

Baboon Social Organization. Produced by the Dept. of Anthropology and Extension Media Center, University of California – Berkeley. Distributed by the Extension Media Center, UC – Berkeley, 2223 Fulton St., Berkeley, CA 94720. (VHS; colt sd.; 17 min.: 1963)

  • The two above videos are based on early studies of savanna baboons in Africa. Through a combination of film and graphics, many concepts of primate social organization are introduced, including the dominance hierarchy, different social roles of males and females, and relationships among juvenile peers. The Behavior video illustrates such activities as feeding; use of sleeping trees; interactions between males and infants; and play. Produced for college introductory classes, these videos can be used for grades 9-12.

Family of Chimps. Produced and distributed by Bert Haanstra Films, The Netherlands. (VHS; colt, sd.; 55 min.: 197?)

  • Filmed at the Arnhem Zoo in the Netherlands, this video examine the social life of a group of chimpanzees – the relationship between the adult males, the variety of play patterns, and the ingenuity of the troop in defending and exploring their environment. Recommended for grades 9-12.

Introduction to Chimpanzee Behavior. Produced and distributed by the National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. (VHS; colt, sd.; 23 min.: 1977)

  • A shorter introduction to Jane Goodall’s work with the wild chimpanzees. The video opens with a brief interview with Louis Leakey discussing the importance of studying chimpanzee behavior, and a short history of chimpanzee research at Gombe National Park. It introduces many of the Gombe chimps, such as old Flo and her family, made famous through Goodall’s work. Many chimp behaviors are shown, including care of infants, play, grooming, courtship and mating, displays and aggression, vocalizations, submission gestures and tool use. This video reintroduces many of the ideas found in the “Primate Behavior” slide set, and is recommended for grades 5 and up. [See Among The Wild Chimpanzees for older students.]

Snow Monkeys. of Japan (aka Extinct Is Forever ). Produced by McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 330 Progress Ave., Scarborough, Ontario, Canada. Distributed by Aims Media, 6901 Woodley Avenue, Van Nuys, CA 91406. (VHS; colt, sd.; 6 min.: 1975)

  • This short video looks at the behavior and habitat of a Japanese macaque troop that has learned to use the hot springs found in the Yakoya River district of Japan. Other behaviors shown include grooming, playing and washing food. There are some minor factual errors in the narration. Recommended for grades 4-8.