Primate Taxonomy Slideshow

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1) The group of animals which includes humans, apes, monkeys and the monkey-like prosimians is called the Primates.

Notes: Title Slide: Taxonomic Classificationprosimians — pro-SIM-ee-ihns
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding

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2) Many species of primates live in tropical rain forests, although others are found in areas with few trees, such as the savannas of Africa. Some have even learned to live in cities.

Notes: Human interacts with one monkey while other monkeys watch – photo taken in India.
Scientific names: Homo sapiens (human) Presbytis entellus (sacred langur)
Photo © by: K.K. Dua

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3) The majority of primate species live in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. Those found in the Americas are called New World monkeys. The Old World monkeys, along with all the prosimians and apes, are found in Africa and Asia, and on islands near those continents.

Notes: World Map — Primate Habitats (Areas in red indicate current non-human primate habitats.)
Question: Why is this part of the map called the New (Old) World?
This map may be reproduced and used as a class handout.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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4) Many primates live in trees, an arboreal habitat. All primates show good grasping ability with their hands and feet. This sifaka is demonstrating vertical clinging to a tree trunk.

Notes: A sifaka (a member of the lemur family) clings to a tree. Photo taken in Madagascar.
Scientific name: Propithecus verreauxi
sifaka — sih-FAHK-ah
Photo © by: Herbert L. Gustafson

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5) Leaping from tree to tree, as this ring-tailed lemur is doing, is one way to get around above the ground. This requires very good vision — another characteristic found in all primates.

Notes: An airborne lemur leaps between trees.
Scientific name: Lemur catta
lemur — LEE-mer
Photo © by: Herbert L. Gustafson

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6) Notice that this young de Brazza monkey’s eyes point straight forward, an arrangement found in all primates. This allows for increased depth perception, very important for animals living in trees.

Notes: Young monkey nurses from mother while looking toward camera.
Scientific name: Cercopithecus neglectus
de Brazza — dih-BRAH-zah
Photo © by: Bertrand L. DePutte

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7) Another characteristic way of moving in trees found in some primate species is branch running and walking. These marmosets, among the smallest of the primates, spend their entire lives in the trees of tropical rain forests. Compared to other mammals, primates have large eyes and small snouts. Vision is their most important sense.

Notes: Small monkeys feeding in a tree. Although these animals are native to South America, this photo was taken in a Scottish woodland.
Scientific name: Callithrix jacchus (Common marmoset)
marmoset — MAR-mah-set
Photo © by: Arnold Chamove

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8) Primates have brains which are large in comparison to their body size. This bald uakari shows another feature found in many primates — a colorful face. This makes it easy for members of this species to see each other in the dense foliage of South American forests.

Notes: A South American monkey with an unusual red face laying on a tree branch.
Scientific name: Cacajao calvus
uakari — wah-CAR-ee
Question: Relatively large eyes and large brains are characteristics of primates. How can you tell that this animal has a large brain?
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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9) Good grasping ability requires hands with long digits, and in many species, an opposable thumb. Primates have forelimbs that are specially adapted to grasping and holding objects — a good example is the human hand. This langur shows that some primates have a mobile big toe, which serves the same function on the foot as our thumb.

Notes: A dark colored monkey extends the right foot (in foreground). Note position of toe.
Scientific name: Presbytis cristata (silvered langur)
langur — LANG-grr
Primates usually have long fingers with an expanded area of sensitive skin at the fingertips. Many have an opposable thumb or big toe. Have students look at their own hands to observe the primate pattern.
Photo © by: Irwin Bernstein

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10) Primates don’t always live in trees. These baboons are ground-living or terrestrial. Baboons have been studied extensively in their native African habitat. They live in large and complicated social groups.

Notes: Two gelada baboons sit on the ground in their dry African habitat.
Scientific name: Theropithecus gelada
The long snout seen in baboons does not mean they rely on their sense of smell more than other monkeys. Baboons need a large jaw because they have very big teeth.
Photo © by: Stephen Gartlan

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11) Primates are social animals. Although some males, like this baboon, may spend time alone as they move between groups, all primates spend most of their life in a social group.

Notes: A baboon walking in a grassy enclosure.
Scientific name: Papio anubis (Olive baboon)
Photo © by: Laura L. McMahon

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12) Primates, whether they live on the ground or above it, rely on sight more than smell to explore their environment. Grasping hands, feet, and in some cases, tails, are used in moving through the habitat and obtaining food.

Notes: A red howler monkey uses his tail to climb up a tree in a South American rain forest.
Scientific name: Alouatta seniculus
This text recaps some of the features that define the primates.
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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13) Some of the New World monkey species, such as this spider monkey, are able to use their tails as a weight-supporting limb. These prehensile or grasping tails are very useful for animals who spend their lives far above the ground.

Notes: A spider monkey hangs by her tail.
Scientific name: Ateles geoffroyi (Geoffroy’s spider monkey)
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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14) Being able to hang by the tail leaves this howler monkey’s hands free to forage among the leaves for food.

Notes: A mantled howler monkey from South America uses his tail and legs to hang in a ‘reverse tripod’ position in a tree.
Scientific name: Alouatta palliata
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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15) Tails are not necessary for successful life in the trees. All apes lack tails, but this gibbon is able to rapidly move from tree to tree using an arm-over-arm method of swinging called brachiation.

Notes: A gibbon hangs by the arms from a rope and branch; this photo was taken in a zoo enclosure.
Scientific name: Hylobates lar
Photo © by: Columbus Zoo

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16) Other apes, such as this chimpanzee, spend much of their time on the ground.

Notes: Chimpanzee walks on ground.
Scientific name: Pan troglodytes
Photo © by: Nancy Staley

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17) The large apes, including this gorilla, are knuckle-walkers. Notice the position of the fingers in this quadrupedal or four limbed posture. The apes and many other primates are able to walk on two legs for short distances. Humans always walk bipedally, on two legs.

Notes: A large male lowland gorilla walking on the ground.
Scientific name: Gorilla gorilla gorilla
Question: Can you put your hands in the same position as this gorilla? What part of the hand do you think is supporting his weight?
The gorilla walks on well padded middle sections of the fingers.
Photo © by: Nancy Staley

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18)This orangutan mother carries an infant. A prolonged period of caring for offspring is a trait humans share with the apes. Other traits we have in common with the primates are an emphasis on sight rather than smell as our main sense; good ability to grasp with our forelimbs; a large brain; and complex social behavior.

Notes: A female orangutan carries a young infant on her belly.
Scientific name: Pongo pygmaeus
orangutan — o-RANG-ah-tan
This text summarizes the traits that define the order Primates.
Photo © by: Anne Zeller

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19) Scientific classification is a way of grouping together animals that have many similarities to each other. Primates as a group have no one distinguishing feature, but are characterized by a series of anatomical and behavioral similarities. Here we see a plan of how the Order Primates is divided into groups of species which are similar to each other. Notice the major division into Prosimians and Anthropoids (the group which includes all monkeys, the apes and humans).

Notes: Graphic — Classification of the Order Primates
Color code: Prosimians – green, New World monkeys – red, Old World monkeys – orange, Apes and humans – purple
At least one sample species is shown for each family in the Primate order, with common name above and scientific name below. Students may look at the four major divisions of the order Primates (Prosimians, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys and Apes) and notice that all monkeys, apes and humans belong to one group.
This graphic may be used as a handout.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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20) Prosimians, literally “before monkeys”, is the large group of primates that includes the lemurs and the loris. Unlike apes and monkeys, some of these animals are nocturnal, active only at night.

Notes: Title slide: The Prosimians Suborder: Prosimii
Prosimians — pro-SIM-ee-ihns
lemur — LEE-mer
loris — LORE-iss
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding

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21) There are three prosimian families. While there are only a few species of tarsiers, the loris are a diverse group found throughout Africa and Asia. There are also a large number of lemur species.

Notes: Graphic — classification of the prosimians.
tarsiers — TAR-see-ers
This is a good place to review the idea of two-word species names.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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22) The aye-aye shown here lives on the island of Madagascar off the coast of Africa. It is a very specialized insect-eater. The aye-aye shares the primate characteristics of large eyes and good climbing abilities. The aye-aye, and most other prosimians, differ from monkeys and apes in having a moist area of skin on the nose.

Notes: A closeup view of an aye-aye sitting on a branch.
Scientific name: Daubentonia madagascariensis
aye-aye — EYE-eye
Question: What other animals have moist noses?
Photo © by: David Haring

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23) The tarsier also has large eyes and is active at night. Tarsiers are native to the Philippine islands in the Pacific ocean. Like most of the prosimians, they have good grasping ability and their hands have nails, rather than claws, on the fingers.

Notes: Another closeup — a tarsier clings to a piece of wood in an upright position.
Scientific name: Tarsius bancanus
tarsier — TAR-see-er
This animal has nails on all fingers and most toes, but there are specialized claws on the feet used for grooming. Have your students look for these “toilet claws”.
Photo © by: David Haring

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24) The slow loris is a slow and deliberate climber. This animal, found in southeast Asia, never lets go with one hand until it has a firm grip with the other. It can catch insects, but eats a variety of other things, including fruit and birds’ eggs.

Notes: A rear view of a loris. The animal is looking over one shoulder.
Scientific name: Nycticebus coucang
loris — LORE-iss
Photo © by: Mark A. Rosenthal

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25) The fast moving Galago or bushbaby is able to leap vertically for distances of 6 feet or more — remarkable for an animal whose body is only 6 inches long. The large ears indicate that this nocturnal animal relies on hearing as well as sight to catch insects and other small creatures.

Notes: A very small bushbaby sits on the floor of a cage.
Scientific name: Galago senegalensis (lesser bushbaby)
galago — GAL-ah-go
Students can use wood grain or nail head visible above the animal to get an idea of its size.
Photo © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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26) The lemurs are found only on the island of Madagascar off the coast of East Africa. The only primates on this island are prosimians and humans.

Notes:Map — Lemur Habitats (Island of Madagascar in red.)
lemurs — LEE-mers
Photo © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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27) One of the smallest primates is this mouse lemur. Although its body is only six inches long, the large eyes and grasping hands show that this is a primate. A nocturnal animal, it eats mainly insects.

Notes: Small mouse lemur grasps the stalk of a green plant.
Scientific name: Microcebus murinus
Question: What differences do you see between this mouse lemur and a rodent such as a mouse?
Photo © by: J. Visser

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28) The gentle lemur is diurnal or active during the day. It is found only in bamboo forests on the coast of Madagascar. All primates take care of their young. Social animals have a lot to learn as they grow up.

Notes: Mother lemur with youngster. The animals are sitting in a wood climbing structure in a captive setting.
Scientific name: Hapalemur griseus (broad-nosed gentle lemur)
Photo © by: David Haring

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29) Probably the most familiar member of this family is the ring-tailed lemur. They live in small social groups which include adults of both sexes along with their youngsters. Ring-tailed lemurs have only one infant at a time, but all infants in a group are born at the same time of year and have the chance to play with their peers as they mature. Play is important to young primates who must learn the skills needed to live in a social group.

Notes: Ring-tailed lemur sitting in a tree. Photo taken in a zoo.
Scientific name: Lemur catta
Photo © by: Michael Pogany

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30) Related to the lemurs are the sifaka. The largest of the prosimians, they are excellent climbers and leapers. They eat mainly fruit and leaves. They spend most of their time in the trees — when they come down to the ground they run bipedally, on two legs not four.

Notes: A sifaka hanging upside-down feeds in a tree.
Scientific name: Propithecus verreauxi
sifaka — sih-FAHK-ah
Notice how long this animal’s legs are in comparison to its body. It moves in the trees by leaping, feet first, from one tree to the next.
Photo © by: David Haring

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31) The New World monkeys are also known as the platyrrhines or broad-noses. The name tells you that their nostrils are far apart.

Notes: Title slide: The Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys)
platyrrhines — PLAT-ih-rynes
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding

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32) New World monkeys are found only in Central and South America. All live in forests. Some have developed prehensile tails to aid in climbing.

Notes: Map — New World Monkey Habitats
All monkeys with prehensile tails are New World, but not all New World monkeys have prehensile tails.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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33) There are two major groups of New World monkeys, the Callitrichids and the Cebids. The Callitrichids include the marmosets and tamarins, the smallest monkeys. A unique feature of this group of monkeys is that they have claws instead of nails on their digits. The Cebids are larger and have nails on their hands. Here are examples of species from each group.

Notes: Map — New World Monkey Habitats
All monkeys with prehensile tails are New World, but not all New World monkeys have prehensile tails.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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34) The common marmosets are among the smallest of the primates, with bodies less than 12 inches long. Marmosets feed on tree sap, using their teeth to gouge out holes in the bark of the trees in which they live.

Notes: Closeup of a small monkey with white ear tufts sitting on a branch.
Scientific name: Callithrix jacchus
Member of the Callitrichid family
Photo © by: Marilyn Cole

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35) This buffy-headed marmoset shows the forward pointing eyes and grasping fingers which indicate these small animals really are primates. Unlike most other monkeys, marmosets almost always have twins. They are able to care for two infants at a time because fathers and older siblings help carry the new babies.

Notes: Small monkey with reddish fur on head sitting on a branch. Notice that she is holding an object in the right hand.
Scientific name: Callithrix flaviceps
Member of the Callitrichid family
Single births are the norm in all Primate families except the Callitrichids.
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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36) Despite their small size, marmosets can be aggressive. This white-fronted marmoset shows a facial expression found in all species of monkeys — the open-mouthed threat.

Notes: Monkey with white face in a threatening posture. Notice the large canine teeth.
Scientific name: Callithrix geoffroyi
Member of the Callitrichid family
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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37) Facial expressions are important to animals who rely on vision as much as primates do. Many species have striking facial appearances — such as this emperor tamarin. Colorful heads (and in some cases, tails) make it easier to recognize friends and foes in dense forests.

Notes: Small monkey with a white “moustache” and red tail sits on a branch.
Scientific name: Saguinus imperator
tamarin — TAM-ah-rin
Member of the Callitrichid family
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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38) This lion tamarin is one of the most beautiful New World monkeys. Unfortunately, it is also one of the most endangered, because of the destruction of the forests where it lives in south-eastern Brazil.

Notes: Small red monkey with dark face sitting on diagonal branch.
Scientific name: Leontopithecus rosalia (Golden lion tamarin)
Member of the Callitrichid family
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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39) Now we will meet members of the other group of New World monkeys called the Cebids. Squirrel monkeys are larger than marmosets — adults weigh up to two and a half pounds. These animals, and the rest of the New World monkeys you will see today, have only one infant at a time. While fathers do not help with infant care, other group members find infants very attractive. Squirrel monkey troops range in size from 20-200 individuals. Females without infants of their own often play with the new babies.

Notes: Gray monkey with white “spectacles” feeding in a tree.
Scientific name: Saimiri sciureus
Member of the Cebid family
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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40) Cebus monkeys are found in forested areas throughout most of Central and South America. They eat fruit and leaves, and some have been observed using stones to crack nuts. All are adept at catching insects and even frogs. These intelligent animals have a wide variety of facial expressions used in communicating with each other. The white shoulders of this species offer a good contrast to surrounding leaves, probably as an aid to communication.

Notes: Black monkey with white face and shoulders feeds in a tree.
Scientific name: Cebus capucinus
cebus — SEE-bus
Member of the Cebid family
These monkeys, also known as capuchins, are considered the most intelligent of the New World primates. They have semi-prehensile tails which can be used to grasp branches, but not to support their entire weight.
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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41) Spider monkeys have five limbs — their tail is just as useful in moving through the trees as are their arms and legs. They are found in tropical rain forests from central Mexico to the Amazon basin.

Notes: Spider monkey, suspended between two branches, holds on with hands,feet and tail.
Scientific name: Ateles geoffroyi
Member of the Cebid family
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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42) The closely related muriqui is found only along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Like the lion tamarin which lives in the same area, it is in danger of extinction. The only known groups live in small forest preserves.

Notes: Hanging by one arm and a tail, a muriqui feeds in a tree.
Scientific name: Brachyteles arachnoides
muriqui — MER-ih-key
Member of the Cebid family
These animals have also been called woolly spider monkeys.
Photo © by: Frans de Waal

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43) Howlers are the most widely distributed of the New World monkeys. They are more commonly heard than seen. They live high in the trees, with movements assisted by a prehensile tail. All have a large space in their lower jaw with a specialized resonating chamber, which allows them to produce their characteristic roaring call.

Notes: Profile of a brown howler monkey. Animal is partly hidden behind leaves.
Scientific name: Alouatta fusca
Member of the Cebid family
There are six species of howlers found in Central and South America. All have prehensile tails and an expanded jaw.
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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44) The bald uakari lives in the upper Amazon basin. They spend their entire life in the trees — not surprising considering they are found in forests subject to frequent flooding.

Notes: High in the trees sits a monkey with a red face and hairless head — the bald uakari.
Scientific name: Cacajao calvus
uakari — wah-CAR-ee
Member of the Cebid family
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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45) Although they look quite different, the sakis are closely related to the uakaris. Note the very broad nose which clearly indicates they are platyrrhines. The New World monkeys are all forest dwellers. Sakis spend most of their time high in the trees.

Notes: Closeup of a saki — notice the bouffant ‘hairdo’ and the ‘beard’.
Scientific name: Chiropotes satanas
sakis — SAK-ees
Member of the Cebid family
Sakis and uakaris do not have prehensile tails.
Photo © by: Luis Claudio Marigo

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46) Old World monkeys are part of the group called the catarrhines. In contrast to the New World species, they have a narrow nose.

Notes: Title slide: The Catarrhines (Old World Monkeys) Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea
catarrhines — CAT-ih-rynes
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding

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47) Old World monkeys are found in Africa and Asia, including Pacific islands. Only one species of monkey is found in Europe, on an island in the Mediterranean sea.

Notes:Map — Old World Monkey Habitats
The European monkeys live on the island of Gibraltar.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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48) Scientists use the term cercopithecids to refer to the family that includes all Old World monkeys.The Colobines and related leaf-eating monkeys make up one large group of Old World monkeys. A second group is called the Cercopithecines. These monkeys have cheek pouches which can be filled with food to be carried away, perhaps to be enjoyed at a safe location.

Notes: Graphic — Classification of the Old World monkeys
cercopithecids — sir-ko-PITH-uh-sids
Colobines — CALL-oh-bynes
Cercopithecines — sir-ko-PITH-uh-seen
The terms leaf-eating monkeys and cheek pouch monkeys will be used in the rest of this section. The names of two sample species for each group are shown in this slide.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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49) This black and white colobus, is an example of the leaf-eating monkeys, a group specialized to feed on vegetation. They have complex stomachs for digesting leaves, somewhat like a cow. They live in Africa — where they have been hunted by humans both as a source of meat and for their skins.

Notes: A black and white monkey with a luxuriant coat sits on the ground in a captive setting.
Scientific name: Colobus guereza
colobus — CALL-oh-bus
Member of the leaf-eating monkey group
Photo © by: Michael Pogany

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50) Leaf-eating monkeys also live in India and southeast Asia. This species, the sacred langur of India spends a lot of time on the ground. Most leaf-eating monkeys spend their day in trees, feeding on fruits, flowers, and seeds as well as leaves. Newborn babies of all langur species are different in color from adults. Infants attract the attention of all adult females in a group; they may be carried by a female other than their mother.

Notes: Two adult langurs sitting in a tree. The pale gray mother in front holds a brown infant.
Scientific name: Presbytis entellus
langur — LANG-grr
Member of the leaf-eating monkey group
Some other mother-infant color combinations found in the langurs include the black adult/apricot infant of the dusky leaf monkey (P. obscura) and the red adult/white infant of the banded leaf monkey (P. melalophos).
Photo © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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51) The proboscis monkey is found only in Borneo. They eat leaves and other vegetation and spend most of their day in the trees. They live in mangrove swamps and in forests near rivers. Proboscis monkeys, so named because of their unusual nose, sleep in trees near water, possibly as a protection from predators.

Notes: A monkey with a very large nose sits in a tree.
Scientific name: Nasalis larvatus
proboscis — pro-BOSS-is
Member of the leaf-eating monkey group
Only the adult males of this species have a drooping nose. Females and infants have slightly upturned noses
Photo © by: A. Susan Clarke

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52) Another leaf-eater with an unusual face, the golden snub-nosed monkey lives in western China. Little is known of their behavior in the wild. In captivity, males and females spend a lot of time in a close embrace — this is probably an adaptation to the cool winters of their native habitat.

Notes: Red monkey with a blue face sits in a sunbeam.
Scientific name: Rhinopithecus roxellanae
Member of the leaf-eating monkey group
The flaps of skin at the corners of the mouth indicate this is an adult male.
Photo © by: A. Susan Clarke

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53)We now move from the leaf-eating monkeys to the monkeys with cheek pouches. This de Brazza monkey is one species of the large group of African monkeys called the guenons. Each type of guenon has strikingly different facial patterns.

Notes: A gray mother with red and white markings on her face holds a curious infant.
Scientific name: Cercopithecus neglectus
de Brazza — dih-BRAH-zah
guenons — GEH-nuns
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
Photo © by: Alan Shoemaker

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54) Several species of guenons may live in the same area. Facial differences allow them to quickly recognize animals of the same species. This Preuss’ guenon shows a patch of color on the face that allows other animals to see its facial expressions even in a dark forest.

Notes: A black monkey with a white ‘beard’ sitting in a tree.
Scientific name: Cercopithecus preussi
guenons — GEH-nuns
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
Photo © by: Stephen Gartlan

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55) The patas monkey lives in northern Africa in dry areas that have few trees. They spend most of their time on the ground and have been called the “cheetahs of the primate world” because of their ability to run quickly. Patas monkeys live in groups consisting of one adult male and several adult females and their offspring. As adults, males can be twice as big as females. This extreme size difference is an example of sexual dimorphism.

Notes:Two red brown monkeys sitting on a fallen tree. The smaller female looks off to the side; the larger male with a black face looks toward the camera.
Scientific name: Erythrocebus patas
patas — POT-us
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
Sexual dimorphism — physical differences between the sexes in size or other anatomic features not directly related to reproduction — is found in many species of primates. Can your students think of any examples of sexual dimorphism in humans, or other species?
Photo © by: Anne Zeller

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56) Another terrestrial group of old world monkeys are the baboons. Here we see two different types — on the left the olive baboon and on the right the hamadryas baboon. Olive baboons live on the savannas or plains of Africa in large social troops with many adult males and females. Hamadryas baboons are from northern Africa. The animal pictured here shows the impressive growth, called a shoulder cape, which marks him as an adult male.

Notes: Split screen. Adult males from two different species of baboons. On the left is the darker olive baboon; on the right a gray hamadryas baboon.
Scientific name: Papio anubis (olive baboon) Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboon)
hamadryas — hom-uh-DRY-us
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
Photo © by: Gustl Anzenberger (left), Nancy Staley (right)

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57) The drill (top) and mandrill (bottom) are sometimes called the baboons of the forest. The colors of the facial pattern of the adult male mandrill are repeated on his rear end. This may allow him to lead a group of animals through the dark undergrowth of the African forest.

Notes: Split screen view. On the top is the more subtly colored drill (but note the red lower lip), on the bottom is the colorful mandrill.
Scientific name: Mandrillus leucophaeus (drill) Mandrillus sphinx (mandrill)
mandrill — MAN-drill
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
Photo © by: Irwin Bernstein (top), Nancy Staley (bottom)

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58) The most widely distributed group of monkeys are the macaques. Species of macaques are found all the way from North Africa and the island of Gibraltar to Japan. The Japanese macaque shown here is well-adapted to cold winters — they live further north than any primate other than humans. They are omnivorous, eating all kinds of food from tree bark and insects, to new foods provided by humans, such as potatoes.

Notes: Red faced mother monkey holds a young infant in a zoo enclosure.
Scientific name: Macaca fuscata
macaques — ma-KACKS
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
Photo © by: Nancy Staley

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59) The Celebes black macaque lives on islands in the South Pacific. They were once known as the Celebes black ape, because they have almost no tail, but they are a close relative of all the other macaque species, not an ape. This species is highly endangered in the wild due to loss of its habitat.

Notes: Closeup of a dark colored mother and child.
Scientific name: Macaca nigra
Celebes — SELL-eh-bees
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
All the macaque species are closely related, despite the differences in color and tail length.
Photo © by: Robert Horwich and Howlers Forever

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60) Macaques live in groups that include multiple adult males as well as many adult females and youngsters. The social system of the rhesus macaque from India has been extensively studied by scientists. In rhesus troops, females generally stay in the group where they are born, while males migrate to a new group.

Notes: A family portrait. In the center is the old matriarch of this monkey family. Her adult daughters sit on either side holding their infants.
Scientific name: Macaca mulatta
rhesus macaque — REE-sus ma-KACK
Member of the cheek pouch monkey group
The social structure of rhesus and other macaque troops is matrilineal. Females inherit their social status or rank from their mother.
Photo © by: Frans de Waal

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61) The rest of the catarrhine group is made up of the lesser and great apes, and humans. The term Hominoidea indicates that humans are included in this group.

Notes: Title Slide: More Catarrhines (Apes) Superfamily: Hominoidea
Hominoidea — HOM-ih-noyd-e-uh
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding

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62) Ape species are found in both Africa and Asia. In contrast to the monkeys, apes lack tails, have a more upright posture, and are generally larger than monkeys. They show the other primate traits — emphasis on vision, very good grasping ability, a complicated social life, and single offspring who take a long time to grow up.

Notes: Map — Ape Habitats
Ape species are limited to southeast Asia and the islands of Borneo and Sumatra (the orangutans and lesser apes) and Africa (gorillas and chimpanzees). This text gives the characteristics of apes, as well as reviewing the general primate traits.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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63) The hylobatids or lesser apes, so called because of their relatively smaller size, include the gibbons and siamangs. There are four species of great apes or pongids — orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos.

Notes: Graphic — Classification of the apes
hylobatids — high-low-BOT-id
pongids — PON-jids
bonobos — bun-OH-boes
There are half a dozen species of lesser apes; only two are shown in this slide. This graphic does show the names of all the living species of great apes.
Artwork © by: Courtesy WRPRC AV Archive

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64) One of the lesser apes, the white-handed gibbon of southeast Asia, is almost exclusively arboreal. Gibbons use the arm-over-arm swinging called brachiation to move through the trees. Notice the elongated arms seen in this mother and child. Arms that are longer than legs are characteristic of all the apes. Like the Old World monkeys, gibbons have callouses on their rear ends which allow them to sit comfortably in trees. The great apes and humans lack this feature.

Notes: Mother gibbon holding an infant. Note relative lengths of arms and legs, and lack of tail.
Scientific name: Hylobates lar
The text gives one characteristic that gibbons have in common with other apes (arm length) and one that they share with Old World monkeys (the sitting pads or callouses called ischial callosities).
Photo © by: Nancy Staley

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65) Another species of lesser ape is the siamang. A striking feature of this animal is the inflatable air sac beneath the chin. This allows siamangs to call over long distances in their native forests.

Notes: A black siamang, arms extended, calling. Notice the inflated hairless air sac beneath the chin.
Scientific name: Symphalangus syndactylus
siamang — SI-a-mang
Photo © by: Roy Fontaine

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66) The orangutan shown here, adult male on the left and adult female with infant on the right, live only on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra in the South Pacific. Despite their large size (males weigh more than 150 pounds), they spend a lot of their time in trees. Orangutans live in small family groups. Notice the large degree of sexual dimorphism in body size and facial appearance between male and female.

Notes: Split-screen. Male orangutan on left, female carrying infant on right.
Scientific name: Pongo pygmaeus
orangutan — o-RANG-ah-tan
Photo © by: Nancy Staley (left), Anne Zeller (right)

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67) The other great ape species all live in Africa. Although they belong to the same species, scientists recognize two types or subspecies of gorilla — the mountain gorilla (top) and lowland gorilla (bottom). Gorillas are exclusively vegetarian, eating roots, leaves and vines. The largest primates are adult male gorillas, weighing 350 pounds or more. Mature males are called silverbacks because of their characteristic coat color.

Notes: Split-screen — two gorilla groups. On top, three mountain gorillas with silverback male in center (photo taken African forest), on the bottom lowland gorillas living in a zoo.
Scientific name: Gorilla gorilla beringei (mountain gorilla) Gorilla gorilla gorilla (lowland gorilla)
The concept of subspecies may be new to students. The scientific name of the lowland gorilla is one of the easiest primate names to remember.
Photo © by: Nancy Staley (bottom), Bill Weber & Amy Vedder (top)

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68) The common chimpanzee sleeps in trees but travels mainly on the ground. Chimps live in multi-male groups — the two males shown here are displaying together, charging a common enemy with hair on end. Studies in the wild have found chimpanzees are capable of making tools such as sticks designed to fish termites out of their mounds. They have also been observed to kill and eat small animals, as a supplement to their diet of fruit and vegetables.

Notes: Two male chimpanzees stand shoulder to shoulder in a zoo enclosure.
Scientific name: Pan troglodytes
Photo © by: Frans de Waal

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69) The bonobo, another species of chimpanzee, lives in Central Africa. In both chimp species, infants are dependent on their mother for food and protection for several years. These highly intelligent animals show many similarities to humans, in their social behavior, use of tools, care of young, reliance on vision and upright posture. These similarities have led some scientists to conclude that humans are closely related to chimpanzees.

Notes: A female bonobo holds a young infant. Note the pink lips and parted hair on the forehead which distinguish the bonobo from the chimpanzee.
Scientific name: Pan paniscus
bonobo — bun-OH-boe
Photo © by: Frans de Waal

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70) Humans show the traits that all primates share: good grasping ability; dependence on vision as our most important sense; a large brain and increased intelligence compared to other mammals; a prolonged period of dependence for young; and complex social behavior. Recent studies of DNA have confirmed our place in the Order Primates.

Notes: Human child hangs by the arms from a climbing structure. Photo taken at a zoo.
Scientific name: Homo sapiens
Text summarizes the traits that define a primate.
Photo © by: Laura L. McMahon

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Notes: Production credits
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding

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Notes: Funding credit
Artwork © by: Chris Lutmerding