C. Jacchus sample ethogram

Tufts-flick TF rapid back-and-forth movement of ear tufts
Frown FR lower eyebrows, furl brow, and turn down corners of mouth while staring
Cuff CU swift, superficial blow or scratch performed aggressively
Chase CH pursue partner, with one or both animals exhibiting aggression and/or submission (not play)
Fight FI grapple aggressively with partner(s), involving biting, clawing, and wrestling
Attack AT lunge at or pounce on partner aggressively; may or may not result in fight
Snap bite SB direct a single short, sharp bite at partner
Submit SU flatten ear tufts and/or facial grimace (partially open mouth with corners of mouth retracted, exposing lower and sometimes upper teeth) and/or slit eyes (eyelids half closed)
Continuous submit CS continuous submit; start scoring after 5 sec
Retreat RE starting from a stationary position, move at lest one body length away from another animal within 1 sec of the other animal establishing proximity (within 10 cm)
Play PL two or more animals lunge, grapple, wrestle or chase for at lest 1 sec in absence of aggression or intense submission; play face may or may not be present
Solicit play SP direct play face toward, pounce on, or initiate grapple with partner, in absence of ongoing play with partner
Play face PF open mouth without retraction of the lips
Join play JP join ongoing play bout between two or more partners
End play EP discontinue all social play for _> 3 sec
Social play SO social interactions involving non-aggressive physical contact with other individuals; high activity
Infant-associated behaviors
Climb on ON climb onto any part of partner’s body so that all four limbs are on partner
Solicit climb on SC position body directly above infant and/or pull infant onto body; may or may not result in infant climbing onto partner’s body
Climb off OF voluntary climb off partner’s body after having all four limbs on partner
Push off/reject PO prevent juvenile from climbing onto body, or rub or otherwise force juvenile off body
Nurse NU have mouth on female’s nipple for _> 1 sec
End nursing EN discontinue nursing posture
Other social behaviors
Sniff/nuzzle SN orient face against or toward partner, excluding anogenital region
Anogenital inspect AI orient face against or toward anogenital region of partner, or use hands or mouth to investigate anogenital region of partner; includes anogenital groom
Groom GR use hands and/or mouth to pick through fur and/or mouth of partner, excluding anogenital region
Sexual solicit SS stare at partner with ear tufts flattened and eyes slit
Mount MO climb on partner’s back from behind and grip partner around waist and legs; may be accompanied by pelvic thrusting
Initiate huddle IH establish passive, torso-torso body contact with partner, with both animals remaining stationary and in passive contact for at least 3 sec
Leave huddle LH terminate huddle after at least 3 sec of passive, torso-torso body contact during which both partners remained stationary
Object steal OS take any non-food object from hands or mouth of partner
Attempt object steal AO attempt but fail to take non-food object from hands or mouth of partner
Food-associated behaviors
Food steal ST take any food from hands or mouth of partner
Attempt food steal AF attempt but fail to take food from hands or mouth of partner
Share food SH eat from a food source from which partner is simultaneously eating or occupying without removing any food from partner’s mouth or hands
New food NF eat from a food source which no other animal is currently holding, eating from, or occupying
Individual behaviors
Bristle strut BS arching posture and/or strut locomotion and/or general Piloerection
Scentmark SM rub or drag anogenital, suprapubic, or sternal region along substrate, object, or partner
Genital present GP raise tail to expose genitals
Object manipulation OM sniff, bite, chew, gouge, handle, pounce on, grapple with, or otherwise manipulate inanimate object, excluding food items and water bottle, for at least 1 sec

Text and design by Lissa Pabst.