PIN welcomes primatologists who are working directly with species to send updates for our fact sheets any time, including sources. We also welcome all readers to send updates and sources for consideration: we will check with the experts before adding these updates. We advise readers to use our fact sheets as just one source of information and to always research additional sources.
Species: P. cinerea, P. nemaeus, P. nigripes
Other names: P. cinerea: P. cenereus, P. nemaeus cinerea, grey-shanked douc langur, gray-shanked douc langur; P. nemaeus: Rhinopithecus nemaeus, P. n. nemaeus, douc monkey, red-shanked douc langur, red-shanked douc; doek (Dutch); rhinopithèque douc (French); langur jaspeado, mono pigatrix (Spanish); kostymapa, svartbent kostymapa (Swedish); P. nigripes: P. moi, black-shanked douc langur, black-shanked douc, black-shanked douc monkey.
please search the IUCN Red List.
Total population: P. cinerea: 600-700
Regions: Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
Gestation: 180-200 days
Height: 59.0 to 63.0 cm (M), 54.5 to 57.0 cm (F)
Weight: P. nemaeus: 11.0 kg (M), 8.44 kg (F)
Groves (2001; 2005) recognizes three species of douc langurs, subsuming a former type, P. moi, under P. nigripes, and separating P. nigripes and P. nemaeus as distinct species. Formerly, P. cinerea was considered a subspecies of P. nemaeus and even then was only recently described in 1997 (Nadler 1997; Brandon-Jones et al. 2004).
Douc is Vietnamese for “monkey” (Lippold & Brockman 1974).
The three species of douc langur are each large colobines with a tail about as long as the rest of the body and legs only a little longer than the arms (Nadler et al. 2003). The tail has a tuft of hair at the end (Stevens et al. 2008). The nose is flat and the eyes are diagonally slanted, the degree of which varies between species (Groves 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). Head and body length in P. nemaeus averages 61.0 cm (24.0 in) (M) and 54.5 cm (21.5 in) (F), in P. nigripes is 59.0 cm (23.2 in) (M) and 54.5 cm (21.5 in) (F) and in P. cinerea averages 63.0 cm (24.8 in) (M) and 57.0 cm (22.4 in) (F) (Kirkpatrick 1998; Nadler et al. 2003). Males are typically larger than females (Nadler et al. 2003). In P. nemaeus, males average 11.0 kg (24.3 lb), while females average 8.44 kg (18.6 lb) (Smith & Jungers 1997).
The three species of douc langur are distinguishable based on pelage color differences (Nadler et al. 2003). Perhaps most importantly, the three species are distinguished by the color of their shanks; P. cinereus have grey shanks (the grey-shanked douc langur), P. nemaeus have red shanks (the red-shanked douc langur) and P. nigripes have black shanks (the black-shanked douc langur) (Nadler 1997).
P. cinerea have a gray agouti body, neck, head and arms with dark gray agouti legs (Groves 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). The belly is whitish-gray or almost white and the hands and feet are black (Groves 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). The facial skin is yellow-brown, yellow-orange or light brown with a white mouth and chin with long white whiskers. The throat is white with an orange ring around the neck (Nadler 1997; Groves 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). Facial characteristics are similar in P. nemaeus, but they have a dark agouti belly and white forearms and the eyes slant a bit more than in the other two species of douc langur. The hind limbs are maroon with black fingers, toes and thighs (Groves 2001). There are long white hairs ringing the face (Lippold 1977). P. nigripes has darker, blue-gray facial skin. The eyes have yellow rings around them and slant the least within the genus (Groves 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). The body, upper arms, and head are both dark gray agouti with a dark brown agouti ventrum (Groves 2001; Nadler et al. 2003). The back of the hands are white to the elbow (Nadler et al. 2003).
There can be some variation within species in coloration. For example, in some populations of P. nigripes, individuals have been seen to possess reddish coloration on the legs, a trait more typical of P. nemaeus (Nadler 2008). Further, animals with intermediate traits may be indicative of natural hybridization as individuals have been seen with traits typical of more than one Pygathrix species (Lippold & Vu 1995).
All species have a white tail, but P. cinerea and P. nemaeus have a tassel at the end, while the P. nigripes tail is longer with a nearly absent tassel (Nadler et al. 2003). Male P. nemaeus have a pink penis and a white scrotum as do P. cinerea, while P. nigripes have a blue scrotum and red penis (Nadler et al. 2003). In P. nemaeus, both sexes have a triangle of white pelage around the base of the tail above which males, but not females, have round white spots. This feature can be used to determine the sex of individuals (Lippold 1977).
Wild douc langurs spend a majority of their time arboreally, moving through quadrupedal and brachiation locomotion; traveling single-file through established pathways (Lippold 1998; Nadler et al. 2003). P. nemaeus are not often seen on the ground, however wild P. nigripes have been seen on the ground and may spend up to 20% of their day terrestrially (Lippold 1995; 1998; Lippold & Vu 2008; Hoang et al. 2009). P. nemaeus in captivity primarily move through their environment through brachiation (46%) and quadrupedal walking and running (Nadler et al. 2003; Byron & Covert 2004). Wild P. nigripes move quadrupedally (61%), through leaping (17%), by brachiating (10%), climbing (8%) and dropping (4%) (Rawson 2006). Horizontal jumps in wild P. nemaeus are also seen, with individuals landing feet first (Lippold 1998).
In captivity, Pygathrix have lived into their mid-twenties (Weigl 2005).
In general, douc langurs of all species are found in eastern Indochina, east of the Mekong River; found in Vietnam (P. cinerea, P. nemaeus, P. nigripes), Laos (P. nemaeus), and Cambodia (P. nigripes) (Timmins & Duckworth 1999; review in Nadler et al. 2003). Roughly, from the north to south, the species of Pygathrix are arranged parapatrically starting with the P. nemaeus, then P. cinerea, and with P. nigripes at the southern end of the generic distribution (Nadler et al. 2003). However, the exact boundaries between all species are unclear and also confounded by the presence of possible hybrid forms and often large gaps in confirmed populations (Nadler et al. 2003). P. nemaeus are the only douc langurs found in Laos, and are found as far north as the center of the country. They range through the central and southern reaches of the country east into Vietnam and south to the Cambodian border (Timmins & Duckworth 1999; Nadler et al. 2003). In Vietnam, the northern limit of P. nemaeus is confirmed as far north as the Pu Mat National Park and south to the Kon Ka Kinh Nature Reserve, but its limits are unclear (Timmins & Duckworth 1999; Nadler et al. 2003). P. nigripes occurs as far north as the Kon Ka Kinh Nature reserve and as far south as the Cat Tien National park. P. cinerea occurs in Vietnam between the distributions other two species, and is present or probably present in the Quang Nam, Gia Lai, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, and Kon Tum Provinces (Nadler et al. 2003; Long 2004). The only species that occurs in Cambodia is P. nigripes, with confirmed sightings in the Ratanakiri province and the Mondulkiri Province (reviewed in Nadler et al. 2003).
Both P. nemaeus and P. nigripes occur sympatrically at the Kon Cha Rang Nature Reserve in the Gia Lai Province, Vietnam (Lippold 1998). Douc langurs can live sympatrically with a number of other non-human primates as well. For example, at the Cat Tien National Park in southeastern Vietnam, P. nigripes, is found with pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus), macaques (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. arctoides), silvered langurs (Trachypithecus germaini), and yellow-cheeked crested gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) (Polet et al. 2004).
It is estimated that there are only 600-700 P. cinerea remaining (Mittermeier et al. 2007; but see also Ha 2004).
Douc langurs are only found in forest habitats. These include old-growth and secondary broadleaf evergreen forest, montane rainforest, wet/dry forests, tropical and semi-tropical evergreen rainforest, submontane and montane evergreen forest, secondary moist forest, monsoon forests, valley forests, sclerophyll evergreen forest, semi-evergreen forest, seasonal lowland forests, and mixed semi-evergreen, mixed humid evergreen forest, and mixed deciduous forest (Lippold 1995; 1998; 1999; Timmins & Duckworth 1999; Lippold & Vu 2002; Ha 2007; Hoang et al. 2009). Douc langurs may also be able to survive in more heavily disturbed forest habitats as well (Ha Thang Long pers comm. cited in Nadler et al. 2003). There are reports of P. nigripes as well as P. nemaeus as high as 1500 meters (4921.3 feet) above sea level and as low as sea level (Eames & Robson 1993; Timmins & Duckworth 1999; Nadler et al. 2003; Ha 2007). Reports at very low altitudes are rare, however, this is nearly meaningless as much suitable habitat at lower altitudes has been cleared and douc langur rarity may be an artifact of extensive human land use and forest clearance (Timmins & Duckworth 1999).
At Phuoc Binh, a douc langur study site in south Vietnam, the average rainfall is over 200 cm (78.7 in), with average highs at 38.8°C (101.8 °F) and lows at 14.2°C (57.6 °F) (Hoang et al. 2009). Across Vietnam (a habitat of all three Pygathrix species), average temperatures range from 27°C (80.6 °F) in south Vietnam grading to an average of 21°C (69.8 °F) in the north of the country. Mountainous areas typically receive more rainfall than in the rest of the country and there are three yearly monsoon seasons (Lippold 1998).
Douc langurs are herbivorous and predominately folivorous (Nadler et al. 2003). In one study in south Vietnam, P. nigripes consumed a range of 152 species of plant, with leaves (especially young leaves) predominating in all seasons, and a lesser reliance on fruit and flowers (Hoang et al. 2009). At this study site on a year-round basis, P. nigripes consumed leaves (54.6%), fruits (19.8%), seeds (9.6%), flowers (14.6%), and other foods (1.5%). Food consumption changed somewhat between the wet and dry seasons, with more fruit eaten in the wet season than in the dry, and correspondingly fewer flowers and leaves in the wet season than in the dry season (Hoang et al. 2009). The species also drinks water while on the ground (Nadler 2008). P. nemaeus mostly eat leaves (especially newly grown), but also eat buds, flowers and fruit (Lippold 1977; Pham 1993a; Lippold 1998). Based on feeding time, P. nemaeus eat leaves (82%), fruit and seeds (14%), and flowers (4%) (Lippold 1998). Animal foods are not eaten (Lippold 1977; 1998).
Wild P. nigripes spend their days on average resting (62%), feeding (27%), traveling (6%), engaged in social behavior (3%) and in other activities (2%). There are peaks in activity, including feeding and traveling early and late in the day (Rawson 2006). Social behaviors include grooming, inter-group aggression, copulation and allomothering (Rawson 2006).
In captivity, P. nemaeus spend their day resting and sleeping (54%) and feeding (23%) (Schwitzer et al. 2002). In the wild, most of the P. nemaeus day is spent moving between food sources and eating, with time also spent sleeping, grooming, or playing (Lippold 1999).
The home range of P. nemaeus is estimated at 1.5-3.5 km² (0.6-1.4 mi²) (Pham 1993b cited in Kirkpatrick 1998).
There is some evidence that P. nemaeus sleeps in larger trees with a thick canopy (Pham et al. 2000 cited in Nadler et al. 2003). Sleeping trees are entered at dusk and are not exited until dawn (Lippold 1999). In captivity, P. nemaeus sleep huddled together (Lippold & Brockman 1974).
More than one species of douc langur may live sympatrically, as is the case at Kong Cha Rang, Vietnam, where P. nemaeus and P. nigripes are both found (Lippold 1995).
Content last modified: September 3, 2009
Written by Kurt Gron.
Cite this page as:
Gron KJ. 2009 September 3. Primate Factsheets: Douc langur (Pygathrix) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/douc_langur/taxon>. Accessed 2020 July 30.
For individual primate species conservation status, please search the IUCN Red List.
Also search the current scientific literature for primate conservation status (overall as well as for individual species), and visit CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).
Conservation information last updated in 2009 follows, for comparison:
In general, Laos harbors the largest conservable P. nemaeus populations, predominantly due to less habitat fragmentation. The largest populations of the species likely reside within its borders (Timmins & Duckworth 1999). P. cinerea are listed as one of the World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates by the IUCN Primate Specialist Group and there are likely less than a thousand individuals in existence (Ha 2004; Mittermeier et al. 2007).
In general, the main threats to douc langurs are hunting, the loss of their habitat, and trade across borders, even though doucs are considered protected (Lippold 1999; Timmins & Duckworth 1999). However, many protected areas are under-staffed and staffs are under-equipped, limiting the protection they actually afford to douc langurs (Lippold 1995). In Vietnam, enforcement of protective laws rarely occurs (Lippold & Vu 1998). In addition, literally millions of people live within protected areas within Vietnam (Lippold 1998).
Threat: Human-Induced Habitat Loss and Degradation
Habitat destruction is a main threat to douc langurs and cutting of trees for firewood is the predominant threat habitats (Lippold 1998; Lippold & Vu 1998). Forest exploitation for a number of uses (including firewood for charcoal, resins, palm leaves, cycad and rattan) degrades douc langur habitats and damages food trees (Lippold & Vu 2008). Resin is collected from favored food trees, weakening them, and making them susceptible to termites, weather and natural disasters (Lippold & Vu 2008). Logging occurs for coffee, rubber, fruit tree, and cashew agriculture, but also other types of plantation agriculture (Lippold & Vu 2002; Ha 2004; Nadler et al. 2007). In Laos, habitat loss due to swidden agriculture and commercial logging threatens populations as it fragments populations and affects the ecology of the species (Timmins & Duckworth 1999). In Vietnam, logging is sometimes prevented in National Parks, but in nearby areas it does occur, destroying potential corridors between populations (Ha 2007). In addition, logging continues both illegally (including by the Vietnamese army) and legally (Lippold & Vu 1998; Ha 2004). Agricultural forest clearance and logging also threaten populations of P. cinerea (Mittermeier et al. 2007).
Development of habitats for tourism also threatens them in multifaceted ways. For example, at Son Tra, Vietnam, tourism development has cause new roadways to be built which has fragmented habitats. The road-building itself causes hunting, as road crews sometimes take douc langurs to eat (Lippold & Vu 2008).
Threat: Harvesting (hunting/gathering)
Hunting and trapping can be the main threat to some douc langur populations, even in protected areas (Lippold 1998; Lippold & Vu 1998; Timmins & Duckworth 1999; Lippold & Vu 2008). Traps which have been placed for other species threaten douc langurs, as well as traps specifically designed to catch primates (Lippold & Vu 2008). P. cinerea are hunted even within protected areas and especially by the use of snares (Ha 2007; Mittermeier et al. 2007). Further, some traditional hunting of the grey-shanked langur does occur and sometimes, traditional hunters supply primates for consumption outside of forested areas (Lippold 1999; Ha 2007).
Gathering of douc langurs for trade is also one of the predominant threats to the species (Timmins & Duckworth 1999). They are gathered and certain body parts are used as medicines (including to make “monkey balm”), and infants are also collected as pets or for food (Davidson et al. 1997 cited in Timmins & Duckworth 1999; Lippold 1998; Lippold & Vu 2002). Particularly, adults are often shot for food and their infants are sold alive as pets or into international trade (especially for export to China), which is a widespread problem (Lippold 1995; 1999). For example, douc langurs are exported from Laos to both Thailand and Vietnam (reviewed in Timmins & Duckworth 1999). Also, P. nemaeus have been illegally purchased by Chinese zoos (Nadler et al. 2007).
Threat: Human Disturbance
P. nemaeus present in areas used as military installations have been shot as target practice (Lippold & Vu 2008). The Vietnam War was a significant factor in the destruction of douc langur habitats in the mid-twentieth century as well (Lippold 1977). In addition, habitats to which Agent Orange (a chemical defoliant) were applied during the war no longer contain douc langurs, even when regenerating (Lippold 1995).
Overpopulation by humans is also a potential threat, as individuals are being resettled in areas that were formerly sparsely populated, and often douc langur habitats (Lippold & Vu 1998).
LINKS TO MORE ABOUT CONSERVATION
- Vietnam poachers arrested for killing rare monkeys (Earth Times; July 8, 2010)
- Eleanor Sterling Blogs from Vietnam for The New York Times (American Museum of Natural History News; June 10, 2010)
- Quang Binh: Largest group of Siki gibbon discovered (VietNamNet; March 24, 2009)
- Foreigner honored for his forestry and wildlife protection efforts (Voice of the Armed Forces and People, Vietnam; February 22, 2009)
- Unexpected Large Monkey Population Discovered (ScienceDaily; August 28, 2008)
- Large population of rare monkeys spotted in Kon Tum (Thanh Nien News; December 25, 2007)
- Rare black langurs found in Khanh Hoa (VietNamNet; September 23, 2007)
- Photo in the News: Rare Monkey Troop Spotted in Wild (National Geographic News; July 3, 2007)
- Vietnam central city to preserve endangered monkey (Thanh Nien Daily; May 23, 2007)
- First study of endangered monkey (UQ News Online, Australia; October 10, 2006)
- Primates swing into spotlight (Viet Nam News; May 4, 2006)
- Snub-nosed monkey is rarer than giant panda (China View; February 13, 2004)
- Links for all species
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN Pygathrix CONSERVATION
Content last modified: September 3, 2009
Written by Kurt Gron.
Cite this page as:
Gron KJ. 2009 September 3. Primate Factsheets: Douc langur (Pygathrix) Conservation . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/douc_langur/cons>. Accessed 2020 July 30.
The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Pygathrix, search PrimateLit.
Brandon-Jones D, Eudey AA, Geissmann T, Groves CP, Melnick DJ, Morales JC, Shekelle M, Stewart C-B. Asian primate classification. Int J Primatol 25(1):97-164.
Brockman DK, Lippold LK. 1975. Gestation and birth of a douc langur Pygathrix n. nemaeus at San Diego Zoo. Int Zoo Ybk 15:126-9.
Byron CD, Covert HH. 2004. Unexpected locomotor behaviour: brachiation by an old world monkey (Pygathrix nemaeus) from Vietnam. J Zool Lond 263(1):101-6.
Davidson P, Robichaud WG, Tizard RJ, Vongkhamheng C, Wolstoncroft J. 1997. A wildlife and habitat survey of Dong Ampham NBCA and Phou Kathong proposed NBCA, Attapu Province, Lao PDR. Vientiane (LA):CPAWM/WCS.
Eames JC, Robson CR. 1993. Threatened primates in southern Vietnam. Oryx 27(3):146-54.
Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p111-84.
Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.
Ha TL. 2007. Distribution, population and conservation status of the grey-shanked douc (Pygathrix cinerea) in Gia Lai Province, central highlands of Vietnam. Vietnam J Primatol 1(1):55-60.
Ha TL. 2004. Distribution and status of the grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea) in Vietnam. In: Nadler T, Streicher U, Ha TL, editors. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Hanoi (VN): Frankfurt Zoological Society/Endangered Primate Rescue Center. p52-7.
Heistermann M, Ademmer C, Kaumanns W. 2004. Ovarian cycle and effect of social changes on adrenal and ovarian function in Pygathrix nemaeus. Int J Primatol 25(3):689-708.
Hick U. 1972. Breeding and maintenance of douc langurs Pygathrix nemaeus nemaeus at Cologne Zoo. Int Zoo Ybk 12:98-103.
Hoang MD, Baxter GS, Page MJ. 2009. Diet of Pygathrix nigripes in southern Vietnam. Int J Primatol 30(1):15-28.
Kirkpatrick RC. 1998. Ecology and behavior in snub-nosed and douc langurs. In: Jablonski NG, editor. The natural history of the doucs and snub-nosed monkeys. Singapore: World Scientific. p155-90.
Lippold LK. 1995. Distribution and conservation status of douc langurs in Vietnam. Asian Prim 4(4):4-6.
Lippold LK. 1999. Doing fieldwork among the doucs in Vietnam. In: Dolhinow P, Fuentes A, editors. The nonhuman primates. Mountain View (CA):Mayfield Pub Co. p170-4.
Lippold LK. 1977. The douc langur: a time for conservation. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p513-38.
Lippold LK, Vu NT. 1995. Douc langur variety in the central highlands of Vietnam. Asian Prim 5(1-2):6-8.
Lippold LK, Vu NT. 2002. The gray-shanked douc: survey results from Tien Phuoc, Quang Nam, Viet Nam. Asian Prim 8(1-2):3-6.
Lippold LK. 1981. Monitoring female reproductive status in the douc langur Pygathrix nemaeus at San Diego Zoo. Int Zoo Ybk 21:184-7.
Lippold LK. 1998. Natural history of douc langurs. In: Jablonski NG, editor. The natural history of the doucs and snub-nosed monkeys. Singapore: World Scientific. p191-206.
Lippold LK. 1998. Primate conservation in Vietnam. In: Jablonski NG, editor. The natural history of the doucs and snub-nosed monkeys. Singapore: World Scientific. p293-300.
Lippold LK, Brockman DK. 1974. San Diego’s douc langurs. Zoonooz 47(3):4-11.
Lippold LK, Vu NT. 2008. The time is now: survival of the douc langurs of Son Tra, Vietnam. Prim Conserv 23:75-9.
Minh DH. 2008. Social organization of the black-shanked douc (Pygathrix nigripes) in two national parks in southern Vietnam [abstract]. Primate Eye 96(special issue):#849.
Mittermeier RA, Ratsimbazafy J, Rylands AB, Williamson L, Oates JF, Mbora D, Ganzhorn JU, Rodríguez-Luna E, Palacios E, Heymann EW, Kierulff MCM, Yongcheng L, Supriatna J, Roos C, Walker S, Aguiar JM. 2007. Primates in peril: the world’s 25 most endangered primates, 2006-2008. Prim Conserv 22:1-40.
Nadler T. 2008. Color variation in black-shanked douc langurs (Pygathrix nigripes), and some behavioural observations. Vietnam J Primatol 1(2):71-6.
Nadler T, Vu NT, Streicher U. 2007. Conservation status of Vietnamese primates. Vietnam J Primatol 1(1):7-26.
Nadler T. 1997. A new subspecies of douc langur, Pygathrix nemaeus cinereus ssp. nov. Zool Garten 67(4):165-76.
Nadler T, Momberg F, Dang NX, Lormee N. 2003. Vietnam primate conservation status review 2002, part 2: leaf monkeys. Hanoi (VN):Fauna & Flora International Asia Pacific Programme Office. 226p.
Pham N. 1993a. First results on the diet of the red-shanked douc langur, Pygathrix memaeus[sic]. Aust Primatol 8(1):5-6.
Pham N. 1993b. Gop phan nghien cuu thu linh truong va dac diem hinh thai, sihn hoc, sihn thai khi vang (Macaca mulatta Zim.), khi coc (Macaca arctoides Geof.), cha va (Pygathrix nemaeus Lin.) va vooc mui hech (Rhinopithecus avunculus Dol.) o Viet Nam. PhD dissertation, Trung tam khoa hoc tu nhien va cong nghe quoc gia vien sinh thai va tai nguyen sinh vat, Hanoi.
Pham N, Do QH, Pham HN. 2000. Report on research result on distribution, ecology and monitoring survey of the red-shanked douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus naemaeus) in Phong Nha-Ke Bang Forest Area. Hanoi(VN):WWF-Indochina Programme.
Polet G, Murphy DJ, Becker I, Phan DT. 2004. Notes on the primates of Cat Tien National Park. In: Nadler T, Streicher U, Ha TL, editors. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Hanoi (VN): Frankfurt Zoological Society/Endangered Primate Rescue Center. p78-84.
Rawson BM. 2006. Activity budgets in black-shanked douc langurs (Pygathrix nigripes)[abstract]. Int J Primatol 27(suppl 1):#307.
Ruempler U. 1998. Husbandry and breeding of douc langurs Pygathrix nemaeus nemaeus at Cologne Zoo. Int Zoo Yb 36:73-81.
Schwitzer C, Klumpe K, Kaumans. 2002. Energy and nutrient intake, feeding behaviour and activity budget of captive douc langurs (Pygathrix n. nemaeus). In: Fidgett A, Clauss A, Eulenberger K, Hatt JM, Hume J, Janssens G, Nijboer J, editors. Zoo Animal Nutrition, vol III. Fuerth(DE):Filander Verlag. p109-24.
Smith RJ, Jungers WL. 1997. Body mass in comparative primatology. J Hum Evol 32(6):523-59.
Smith RJ, Leigh SR. 1998. Sexual dimorphism in primate neonatal body mass. J Hum Evol 34(2):173-201.
Stevens NJ, Wright KA, Covert HH, Nadler T. 2008. Tail postures of four quadrupedal leaf monkeys (Pygathrix nemaeus, P. cinerea, Trachypithecus delacouri and T. hatinhensis) at the endangered primate rescue center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. Vietnam J Primatol 1(2):13-24.
Timmins RJ, Duckworth JW. 1999. Status and conservation of douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus) in Laos. Int J Primatol 20(4):469-89.
Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.
Content last modified: September 3, 2009
Photo: Anna Halko-Angemi
Photo: Anna Halko-Angemi
Photo: Christina Oliphant
Photo: Christina Oliphant
Photo: Richard Frazier
Photo: Sheri Jurkiewicz
Primate Info Net (PIN) is maintained by the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, with countless grants and contributions from others over time. PIN is an ever-growing community effort: if you’d like to contribute, or have questions, please don’t hesitate to contact us.