Pig-tailed macaque

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TAXONOMY

Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea
Family: Cercopithecidae
Subfamily: Cercopithecinae
Genus: Macaca
Species: M. nemestrina

Other names: M. leonina: M. nemestrina leonina; northern pig-tailed macaque; M. nemestrina: M. nemestrina nemestrina; pig-tailed macaque, Sunda pig-tailed macaque, southern pigtail macaque, or Sundaland pigtail macaque; macaque à queue de cochon (French); berok or beruk (Malay); macaca cola de cerdo (Spanish); mentawaimakak, svinapa, or svinmakak (Swedish); ling kaang (Thai)

Conservation status: Vulnerable

Life span: 26 years
Total population: Unknown
Regions: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Bangladesh, India, China, Burma, Laos, Cambodia
Gestation: 5.7 months (170 days)
Height: 495 to 564 mm (M), 467 to 564 mm (F)
Weight: 6.2 to 14.5 kg (M), 4.7 to 10.9 kg (F)

Once considered subspecies, there are now two recognized species of pigtail macaques. Macaca nemestrina, or the southern pigtail macaque, is the only species studied in the wild, and little is understood about the ecological or behavioral differences of the two species. In captivity, studies have been conducted with both species, though often without knowing which species is which (Groves 2001; Maestripiri pers. comm.). The information provided in this fact sheet is about the southern species, except where noted.

MORPHOLOGY

Pigtail macaque
Macaca nemestrina

Southern pigtail macaques have olive brown fur over their entire bodies, except for their undersides, which are white. The fur on the top of their heads is dark brown or black and grows in a pattern that makes them look like there is a depression in the center of the top their heads (Rowe 1996; Groves 2001). Northern pigtail macaques have golden brown fur and the fur on the top of their heads is brown. They have red streaks of fur extending from the outer cornier of each eye towards the ear. Pigtail macaque infants are born black and as they mature, their pelage changes to the adult coloration (Crockett & Wilson 1980). Pigtail macaques are sexually dimorphic with males measuring 495 to 564 mm (1.62 to 1.85 ft) and weighing 6.2 to 14.5 kg (13.7 to 32.0 lb) while females measure 467 to 564 mm (1.53 to 1.85 ft) and weigh between 4.7 and 10.9 kg (10.4 and 24.0 lb) (Fa 1989). Males have much larger canine teeth than females, measuring 12 mm (.472 in), on average, which are used in aggressive interactions (Rowe 1996). Pigtail macaques have an abbreviated tail, less than the length of the body from head to rump, which is often bare or covered only by sparse fur (Rowe 1996; Groves 2001). Pigtail macaques get their popular name from their tails, which are short and carried half-erect so that they somewhat resemble a pig’s tail (Choudhury 2003). They move quadrupedally on the ground and through trees (Rowe 1996). Pigtail macaques have an average lifespan of about 26 years (Sponsel et al. 2002).

RANGE

CURRENT RANGE MAPS (IUCN REDLIST):
Macaca nemestrina

Pigtail macaques have a wide range throughout Southeast Asia. Southern pigtail macaques are found in northeastern India, southern China, in Indonesia on Borneo (Kalimantan) and Sumatra, in eastern Bangladesh, as well as in Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. They are also found in Malaysia, both on the Malay Peninsula and on Borneo (Feeroz et al. 1994; Groves 2001; Choudhury 2003). Northern pigtail macaques are found in peninsular Thailand , through Burma and Indochina and into Bangladesh , India , and Southern China . There is some evidence of hybridization of the two species in Thailand, but interbreeding is not widespread (Groves 2001).

HABITAT

Pigtail macaques are found in lowland and hilly primary rainforests and occasionally are found in swamp and secondary forests (Crockett & Wilson 1980). They prefer undisturbed forests and are found in the highest densities in intact rainforests (Supriatna et al. 1996). Rainforests are maintained in warm and humid climates where temperatures range between 18 and 30° C (64 and 86° F) and where there is more than 2500 mm (8.20 ft) of rainfall each year, though there may be seasonality in rainfall. Where they are found in Bangladesh, the annual precipitation is 2034 mm (6.67 ft) with the highest rainfall occurring during the monsoon season, from May to September, and the lowest in December. The coldest months of the year are December and January, which have average temperatures of 12.3° C (54.4° F) and 9.7° C (49.5° F), respectively. August is the warmest month of the year with an average maximum temperature of 33° C (91.4° F) (Feeroz et al. 1994). In neighboring northeastern India, the climate and rainfall is quite variable, ranging from less than 1000 mm (3.28 ft) to more than 10,000 mm (32.81 ft) annually (Choudhury 2003). The climate in this part of India can also be as cool as 4°C (39.2° F) in December to early February to 30° C (86° F) from June to August. Most of the rain occurs from May to September, and snow falls in winter at the higher altitudes (Choudhury 2003). Rainfall in southern Sumatra ranges from 2000 to 3267 mm (6.56 to 10.7 ft) per year with indistinct wet or dry seasons (Supriatna et al. 1996). The climate there is also warm and humid (Lucas & Corlett 1991). In Peninsular Malaysia, rainfall averages 2100 mm (6.89 ft) per year with the least amount of rainfall during January and February and the period of highest rainfall occurring during September and October (Saiful & Nordin 2001).

Pigtail macaques range from sea level to above 2000 m (6562 ft) (Srivastava & Mohnot 2001; Choudhury 2003).

ECOLOGY

Pigtail macaque eating
Macaca nemestrina

Pigtail macaques are highly frugivorous, with 74% of their diet consisting of fruit, but they also consume a wide variety of foods including insects, seeds, young leaves, leaf stems, dirt, and fungus (Crockett & Wilson 1980; Caldecott 1986). Pigtail macaques spend most of their time on the ground, but the northern pigtail macaque seems to be more arboreal than the southern species (Maestripieri pers. comm.). Spending most of their time on the ground foraging, they are particularly adept at raiding agricultural fields and obtaining coconuts from oil palm plantations, papaya, corn, and cassava. They are stealthy crop raiders, sneaking silently into a garden one at a time, with one acting as a lookout and calling an alarm vocalization if humans are seen. Pigtail macaques are especially likely to raid crops during rainstorms, when farmers are inside, away from their crops (Crockett & Wilson 1980). In some areas of the Malay Peninsula, farmers keep and train pigtail macaques to retrieve coconuts and fruits from cultivated trees (Crockett & Wilson 1980; Sponsel et al. 2002).

Because of their large group size, between nine and 81 individuals and larger, pigtail macaques often split up into foraging groups to decrease direct competition for fruit at feeding sites. They travel in small subgroups, from two to six monkeys, along the ground, foraging as they move and keeping in contact with other subgroups through vocalizations (Crockett & Wilson 1980; Caldecott 1986). In addition to spreading out over the landscape as they forage, pigtail macaques cover large areas each day. They have home ranges between .6 and 8.28 km² (.232 and 3.20 mi²) and in areas of high density, groups’ home ranges can overlap each other by as much as 50% (Sponsel et al. 2002). The day range length varies between 825 and 2964 m (.513 and 1.84 mi), depending on weather conditions and seasonal fruit availability (Caldecott 1986).

Content last modified: September 12, 2005

Written by Kristina Cawthon Lang. Reviewed by Dario Maestripieri.

Cite this page as:
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 September 12. Primate Factsheets: Pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pigtail_macaque>. Accessed 2020 July 15.

 

 

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOR

Pigtail macaque grooming youngster
Macaca nemestrina

The general social structure for macaque species is multi-male/multi-female with distinct dominance hierarchies within each sex (Dittus 2004). Pigtail macaques exhibit this social organization in groups of up to 81 animals (Oi 1990a). Within these groups, the sex ratio is biased toward females, which remain in their natal groups their entire lives (Caldecott 1985; Oi 1990a). Males emigrate from their natal groups between five and six years of age and temporarily associate with other social groups before ranging solitarily or permanently immigrating into a group (Oi 1990a). Adult males are dominant over adult females and males often attack females and displace them at feeding sites. Groups of females are capable of attacking adult males, though, and individual females sometimes initiate aggressive encounters towards lower-ranking males with the help of female relatives (Oi 1990b). One reason this between-sex aggression may occur is decreased tolerance for competitors. Females may see low-ranking males not as potential mates but as competitors for food resources. Aggressive behaviors are even more severe between males than between males and females, with the highest-ranking male directing aggression toward lower-ranking males and solitarily ranging males that attempt to join the social group (Oi 1990b). The highest-ranking females in a pigtail macaque group are likely sisters and share similar rank and are highly tolerant of one another. Tolerance is exhibited through grooming, kissing, and feeding together (Oi 1990b).

Though there are multiple males within a group of pigtail macaques, there is a linear dominance hierarchy among the males and there is usually a dominant male within the group. When young males immigrate into a new group, they are the lowest-ranking males and will work their way up the dominance hierarchy, attempting to secure the position of alpha male. In captivity, if an adult male is successful at assuming the position of alpha male after he is placed in a group, he often is responsible for killing any infants within the group. This infanticidal behavior has only been recorded in captivity, not in the wild (Clarke et al. 1995).

REPRODUCTION

Two Pigtail macaques
Macaca nemestrina

Pigtail macaques are not seasonal breeders and mating occurs year-round though there is a slight peak from January to May (Crockett & Wilson 1980; Rowe 1996). Females reach sexual maturity at three years of age, which is accompanied by the characteristic anogenital swelling during estrus, but compared to M. leonina, M. nemestrina females have much larger sexual swellings (Maestripieri pers. comm.). Males mature later, reaching puberty between three and 4.5 years (Sirianni & Swindler 1985). A female solicits a male by approaching him from behind and then passing directly in front of his face and presenting her rump while looking back over one shoulder. Females mate with multiple males, both adolescents and adults regardless of dominance rank, during estrus (Oi 1996). If only a few females in a group are in estrus, the two top-ranking males are able to monopolize mating with these females because it is possible for them to keep other males from mating with one or two females. In fact, if a low-ranking male attempts to solicit or mate with a female, the alpha male will interfere and act aggressively toward both the male and female. The higher-ranking males have difficulty monopolizing estrous females if there are more than two in a group at one time, and lower-ranking males have more opportunities to mate when more estrous females are present (Oi 1996). In one study with captive pigtail macaques, genetic tests of captive pigtail macaques have revealed that dominance rank did not influence paternity, that is, the highest ranking individuals did not have the most offspring in the group (Gust et al. 1996). These findings cannot be generalized to all pigtail macaque groups and genetic tests in wild groups of pigtail macaques could lead to new insight into reproductive success and dominance rank.

While male rank does not guarantee higher reproductive output among male pigtail macaques, female rank is a factor both in reproductive output and sex of offspring, according to one captive study. After a gestation period of 170 days, high-ranking females were more likely to gave birth to female infants while low-ranking females more often give birth to male infants (Maestripieri 2002). Furthermore, this bias increased with age in both high and low-ranking females, so that as they age, high-ranking females were even more likely to give birth to females while low-ranking females are even more likely to give birth to sons (Maestripieri 2002). One possible reason this pattern was seen could be that daughters are more energetically expensive to raise as they nurse more frequently and depend on their mothers for protection for longer because they remain in their natal group. Males, on the other hand, nurse less frequently and spend less time near their mothers as they age, eventually leaving their natal group (Maestripieri 2002). Higher-ranking females have more to gain by investing in daughters, who will remain in the group and form coalitions with their female relatives to maintain dominance. Low-ranking females do not gain as much by having daughters because they are likely to be the target of aggression from other females and females are energetically expensive to rear (Maestripieri 2002). They give birth to sons that will leave the group and have a chance of attaining a higher rank than would be possible if they were a female remaining in her natal group. This is one way that female pigtail macaques increase their inclusive fitness. More research on dominance rank and sex ratio is needed to test these hypotheses. The interbirth interval for wild pigtail macaques is between 18 and 24 months, depending on resource availability (Oi 1996).

PARENTAL CARE

Macaque mothers care for their offspring with little or no help from other individuals. While the majority of care occurs in the first year of life, including nursing, transportation, and protection, macaque mothers groom and socially support their offspring, especially females, throughout their lives or until they leave the natal group (Maestripieri 2004). The infancy period lasts from birth to one year in pigtail macaques and juvenilehood lasts from one to 3.5 years (Oi 1990a). During the first month of life, pigtail mothers rarely break contact with their infants, but as they age, infants begin to spend time off of their mother, exploring the surroundings. This is very tentative at first, but increases after the fifth week of life (Maestripieri 1994a). By the third month of life, the natal coat of infant pigtail macaques begins to change from black to the adult olive brown coloration (Maestripieri 1994b).

Pigtail macaque mother and infant
Macaca nemestrina

During infancy, pigtail macaques are subject to being grabbed or seized by other adult females in the group. All females in the group show great interest in infants, and higher-ranking females often grab lower-ranking females” infants (Maestripieri & Wallen 1995). These “kidnappings” occur especially while the infant is moving independently from the mother. If infants are separated from the mother long enough, they are likely to die from starvation or dehydration (Maestripieri 1994b).

COMMUNICATION

Some researchers (i.e. Crockett & Wilson 1980 and Oi 1990a) describe pigtail macaques as uncharacteristically quiet monkeys that move through the forest almost silently, with the only sounds coming from juveniles rustling leaves. They have been observed being silent after fleeing or a group disturbance (perhaps after being startled by researchers) and are especially quiet after crop raiding and being chased into forested areas by farmers (Crockett & Wilson 1980; Caldecott 1986). Laboratory and other field studies show they are not always quiet, and do have a wide range of calls and vocalizations. “Coo” vocalizations are used as a pigtail macaque group forages and moves through the middle and upper canopy of the rainforest. These can be short or long in duration and are the most common calls heard in the wild (Caldecott 1986). Other vocalizations include “squeals,” “screeches,” “screams,” “growls,” or “barks.” These are heard in harassed, threatened, or threatening individuals during agonistic interactions within the group (Caldecott 1986).

Pigtail macaques also have a variety of facial expressions and postural behaviors that communicate status and intent to other pigtail macaques. “Branch shaking” by males is one display thought to attract the attention of estrous females as well as threaten peripheral males (Caldecott 1986). A common facial expression unique to pigtail macaques is the “pucker” or “protruded lips face” seen in both males and females. Males direct “puckers” toward estrous females as well as other males, with very different results. When adult males “pucker” towards females, they often copulate directly following the exchange but when a “pucker” is directed toward another male, the submissive male retreats (Caldecott 1986). The most common facial expression, and one that is seen throughout macaque species, is the “silent bared teeth” face. Among pigtail macaques this is seen between males, with the male performing the “silent bared teeth” face always lower-ranking than or submissive to the male to which the signal is directed (Flack et al. 2000).

SPECIAL NOTES

In Thailand, pigtail macaques are used by coconut farmers to retrieve fruits from the crowns of tall palm trees on coconut plantations, a dangerous job for a human but a natural behavior for a macaque. They are taken from the wild as infants and are raised by humans. By the age of five years, pigtail macaques are trained to respond to verbal commands, how to choose coconuts in different phases of ripeness, and how to remove a coconut from the stem (Sponsel et al. 2002). After a pigtail macaque is trained, it receives food rewards for performing these tasks properly and an efficient macaque can harvest between 500 and 1000 coconuts per day from a coconut palm plantation. About half of a family’s yearly income may be earned by the pigtail macaque retrieving the coconuts which are sold at market or used for food and a multitude of other products (Sponsel et al. 2002).

Content last modified: September 12, 2005

Written by Kristina Cawthon Lang. Reviewed by Dario Maestripieri.

Cite this page as:
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 September 12. Primate Factsheets: Pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) Behavior . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pigtail_macaque/behav>. Accessed 2020 July 15.

 

INTERNATIONAL STATUS

CITES: Appendix II (What is CITES?)
IUCN Red List: M. nemestrina: VU (What is Red List?)
Key: VU = Vulnerable
(Click on species name to see IUCN Red List entry, including detailed status assessment information.)

CONSERVATION THREATS & POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

Threat: Human-Induced Habitat Loss and Degradation

The most serious threat to primate populations in Indonesia and Malaysia is the unsustainable practice of timber extraction. Habitat destruction and the subsequent degradation, either from commercial timber harvesting or conversion of land to agriculture poses a very serious threat to any arboreal primates or those that depend on primary forest, as do pigtail macaques (Rijksen & Meijaard 1999). In India, habitat destruction is also a problem. Slash and burn (swidden) agriculture, or jhum, by local people threatens forests in the area while monoculture tree plantations are replacing primary forest in much of the area, leading to a loss of usable habitat for pigtail macaques (Choudhury 2003). Small scale harvesting of forest products can have a severe effect on the quality of habitat in an area. Collection of firewood and selectively cutting trees for building materials as well as harvesting other forest products are steady pressures that lead to serious consequences for forest structure and composition (Srivastava et al. 2001). Pigtail macaques require the continued existence of large expanses of forest, but with the human population in their range growing quickly, forest clearing for agriculture is likely to continue and increase. Harvesting forest products will also increase leading to severe degradation and fragmentation of the forest and subsequent displacement of pigtail macaques (Choudhury 2003).

Potential Solutions

The establishment of forest reserves that are reliably safe from extractive practices are necessary. The convergence of thousands of families using forest products obviously has serious effects on intact forests and leads to widespread destruction. Governments of the range countries for pigtail macaques need to implement substantial rules enforced by forest rangers in the areas currently classified as protected as well as add more area to the protected forests. Rather than just blocking local people from the forests through guards, though, there needs to be serious educational programming for local communities to understand the cumulative effect of each family removing firewood and other forest products (Srivastava & Mohnot 2001; Srivastava et al. 2001). These seemingly harmless practices that remove only a bundle of sticks from the forest each day with small hand tools can have the same aggregate impacts as commercial logging operations over time (Srivastava et al. 2001).


Threat: Harvesting (hunting/gathering)

The pigtail macaque is killed for food by many tribes in northeastern India and has been hunted to near extirpation in some states (Choudhury 2003). Though there is no significant trade in pigtail macaques as pets, any young animal that can be captured is taken as a pet. They are also illegally captured for supply to zoos (Choudhury 2003).

They are also threatened because of their high demand for biomedical research, especially as models for diseases such as AIDS (Rowe 1996).

Potential Solutions

Changing the attitudes of local people in areas around and near pigtail macaque habitat will be necessary in order to stop the hunting of these animals. Conservation education and conservation action plans should be directed at and involve local people that live in and around forested areas as well as increasing awareness through media coverage could encourage local people to be aware of the conservation impact of their actions (Srivastava & Mohnot 2001). Furthermore, increasing the efficacy of primate protection both through game wardens and conservation officers in the forested regions could decrease the amount of illegal hunting in the area (Srivastava & Mohnot 2001).


Threat: Pollution

Pollution caused by opencast or strip coal mining is significant in the pigtail macaque’s range in India (Srivastava & Mohnot 2001).

Potential Solutions

The Indian government can control the degrading effects of this type of mining and the direct impact to pigtail macaques by regulating more closely mining operations, especially those near reserves known to harbor pigtail macaques.

LINKS TO MORE ABOUT CONSERVATION

CONSERVATION INFORMATION

CONSERVATION NEWS

ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN Macaca nemestrina CONSERVATION

Content last modified: September 12, 2005

Written by Kristina Cawthon Lang. Reviewed by Dario Maestripieri.

Cite this page as:
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 September 12. Primate Factsheets: Pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) Conservation . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pigtail_macaque/cons>. Accessed 2020 July 15.

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Macaca nemestrina, search PrimateLit.

REFERENCES

Caldecott JO. 1986. An ecological and behavioural study of the pig-tailed macaque. In: Szalay FS, editor. Contributions to primatology, Vol. 21. Basel (Switzerland): Karger. 259 p.

Choudhury 2001. Primates in northeast India: an overview of their distribution and conservation status. In: Gupta AK, editor. Vol 1(1), Non-human primates of India, ENVIS bulletin: wildlife & protected areas. Dehradun (India): Wildl Inst India. p 92-9.

Choudhury A. 2003. The pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina in India- status and conservation. Prim Cons 19: 91-8.

Pigtail macaque artwork
Macaca nemestrina

Clarke MR, Blanchard JL, Snyder JA. 1995. Infant-killing in pigtailed monkeys: a colony management concern. Lab Prim News 34(4): 1-3.

Crockett CM, Wilson WL. 1980. The ecological separation of Macaca nemestrina and M. fascicularis in Sumatra. In: Lindburg DG, editor. The macaques: studies in ecology, behavior and evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p 148-81.

Dittus W. 2004. Demography: a window to social evolution. In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W, editors. Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 87-112.

Fa JE. 1989. The genus Macaca: a review of taxonomy and evolution. Mammal Rev 19(2): 45-81.

Feeroz MM, Islam MA, Kabir MM. 1994. Food and feeding behaviour of hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), capped langur (Presbytis pileata), and pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) of Lawachara. Bangladesh J Zool 22(2): 123-32.

Flack JC, Preuschoft S, Gong ML, de Waal FBM. 2000. Power, rank, dominance style, and the silent bared-teeth display in pigtail macaque society (Abstract). Am J Primatol 51(Suppl. 1): 57-8.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Gust DA, Gordon TP, Gergits WF, Casna NJ, Gould KG, McClure HM. 1996. Male dominance rank and offspring-initiated affiliative behaviors were not predictors of paternity in a captive group of pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Primates 37(3): 271-8.

Lucas PW, Corlett RT. 1991. Relationship between the diet of Macaca fascicularis and forest phenology. Folia Primatol 57(4): 201-15.

Maestripieri D. 1994a. Mother-infant relationships in three species of macaques (Macaca mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides). I. Development of the mother-infant relationship in the first three months. Behaviour 131(1-2): 75-96.

Maestripieri D. 1994b. Mother-infant relationships in three species of macaques (Macaca mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides). II. The social environment. Behaviour 131(1-2): 97-113

Maestripieri D. 1996. Maternal dominance rank and age affect offspring sex ratio in pigtail macaques. J Mammal 83(2): 563-8.

Maestripieri D. 2004. Maternal behavior, infant handling, and socialization. In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W, editors. Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 231-4.

Maestripieri D, Wallen K. 1995. Interest in infants varies with reproductive condition in group-living female pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Physiol & Behav 57(2): 353-8.

Oi T. 1990b. Patterns of dominance and affiliation in wild pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina nemestrina) in west Sumatra. Int J Primatol 11(4): 339-56.

Oi T. 1990a. Population organization of wild pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina nemestrina) in west Sumatra. Primates 31(1): 15-31.

Oi T. 1996. Sexual behaviour and mating system of the wild pig-tailed macaque in west Sumatra. In: Fa DE, Lindburg DG, editors. Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 342-68.

Rijksen HD, Meijaard E. 1999. Our vanishing relative: the status of wild orang-utans at the close of the twentieth century. Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Kluwer Acad. 480 p.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Saiful AA, Nordin M. 2001. Diversity and abundance of primates in the Weng River catchment, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropic Biodiv 7(2-3): 187-94.

Sirianni JE, Swindler DR. 1985. Growth and development of the pigtailed macaque. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Pr. 168 p.

Sponsel LE, Ruttanadakul N, Natadecha-Sponsel P. 2002. Monkey business? The conservation implications of macaque ethnoprimatology in southern Thailand. In: Fuentes A, Wolfe LD, editors. Primates face to face: conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 288-309.

Srivastava A, Das J, Biswas J, Buzarbarua P, Sarkar P. 2001. Primate population decline in response to habitat loss: Borajan Reserve Forest of Assam, India. Primates 42(4): 401-6.

Srivastava A, Mohnot SM. 2001. Distribution, conservation status and priorities for primates in northeast India. In: Gupta AK, editor. Vol 1(1), Non-human primates of India, ENVIS bulletin: wildlife & protected areas. Dehradun (India): Wildl Inst India. p 102-8.

Supriatna J, Yanuar A, Martarinza, Wibisono HT, Sinaga R, Sidik I, Iskcandar S. 1996. A preliminary survey of long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina) in Lampung, Bengkulu, and Jampi provinces, Southern Sumatera, Indonesia. Tropic Biodiv 3(2): 131-40.

Umapathy G, Singh M, Mohnot SM. 2003. Status and distribution of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa in the Nicobar Islands, India. Int J Primatol 24(2): 281-93.

Yeager CP. 1996. Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 17(1): 51-62.

Content last modified: September 12, 2005

 

IMAGES

Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Anne Marie Novinger
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Anne Marie Novinger
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Irwin S. Bernstein
Macaca nemestrina
Photo: Primates in Art & Illustration Collection

 

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