Pygmy marmoset

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TAXONOMY

Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cebidae
Subfamily: Callitrichinae
Genus: Callithrix
Subgenus: Cebuella
Species: C. pygmaea
Subspecies: C. p. niveiventris, C. p. pygmaea

Other names: Cebuella pygmaea; dwergzijdeaapje (Dutch); ouistiti mignon (French); chambira, chichico, leoncillo, micoleãozinho, or titi (Spanish); dvärgmarmosett or dvärgsilkesapa (Swedish)

Conservation status: Least concern

Life span: 12 years
Total population: Unknown
Regions: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru
Gestation: 4.5 months (142 days)
Height: 136 mm (M & F)
Weight: 119 g (M & F)

Diagnosis of two subspecies is fairly recent as is the change in genus from Cebuella to Callithrix, therefore some publications simply refer to one species in the genus Cebuella.

MORPHOLOGY

Pygmy marmoset grasping branch
Callithrix pygmaea

Pygmy marmosets are the smallest monkeys in the world, weighing a mere 119 g (4.20 oz) on average and measuring, on average, 136 mm (5.35 in) (Soini 1988; Rowe 1996). Males and females are very similar in size, though females are slightly heavier (Soini 1988). There are few distinguishing morphological differences between the subspecies, which may only differ slightly in ventral pelage color (Groves 2001). They have brownish-gold fur with black ticking on their shoulders, backs, and heads, while their ventral fur is light yellow to white. Infants are born with different pelage than is seen in adults; they are a lemon-yellow color with black ticking over their bodies while the head is a dark grey with yellow fur on and around their ears. By the end of the first month, they lose this coat and resemble adults (Soini 1988). Adult pygmy marmosets have tails that are longer than their bodies and marked with conspicuous black rings. The fur on their faces sweeps back over their forehead and ears and they have two white marks on either side of their mouth and a white, vertical line on their noses (Soini 1988). These facial markings probably serve to enhance perception of facial expression and head movements in visual communication in the diffuse light of dense forests (Soini 1988).

Though they exhibit squirrel-like patterns of locomotion, including quadrupedally running up and down tree trunks, vertically clinging to tree trunks as they feed on sap, and branch and vine-running on both the top and underside surfaces of horizontal substrates, they are not more closely related to squirrels than other primates (Kinzey 1997). Their small body size allows them to use very slender supports but does not inhibit their locomotion; pygmy marmosets can leap up to five meters (Rowe 1996; Kinzey 1997). They are also able to turn their heads 180 degrees, an adaptation which allows them to scan the environment for predators while vertically clinging to a tree (Kinzey 1997). Pygmy marmosets are able to support their weight on the tips of their long, sharp, claw-like nails (called tegulae) which are different from the flat nails (called ungulae) seen in other primates, including humans, and are probably an adaptation to a life spent clinging to trees (Kinzey 1997; Sussman 2000). An additional characteristic that aids in their exudate-eating behavior is the shape of their lower incisors. They are narrow and elongated such that the five teeth in the front and center of the lower jaw are all the same length. This helps them gnaw into trees efficiently and stimulate sap flow (Sussman 2000). They also have an enlarged cecum, a part of the digestive tract which allows extended time for the breakdown of plant gums (Sussman 2000). Another unusual characteristic seen in pygmy marmosets and other callitrichines is the pattern of giving birth to non-identical twins more frequently than singletons (Soini 1988).

RANGE

CURRENT RANGE MAPS (IUCN REDLIST):
Callithrix pygmaea

Found in Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil, pygmy marmosets range over a large area and the subspecies are isolated by geographic barriers which include several large rivers. The northern subspecies, C. p. pygmaea, is found in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, southern Colombia, northern Bolivia, northeastern Ecuador, and eastern Peru (van Roosmalen 1997; Yépez et al. 2005). Its range is bound by the Rio Solimões and Rio Caquetá. C. p. niveiventris is found in eastern Peru and Amazonas, Brazil south of the Rio Solimões and north of the Rio Purus. It extends as far east as the Rio Madeira and is bound in the west by the Andes (van Roosmalen 1997; Groves 2001).

Given their tiny body size and the type of forests in which they are found, wild pygmy marmosets have been poorly studied and there is a lack of detailed behavioral and ecological data (Soini 1982; Heymann &Soini 1999). Many short-term field studies were carried out in the late 1960s and early 1970s, but the first long-term field study of pygmy marmosets occurred in the mid-1970s to 1980s by Pekka Soini. His findings dramatically increased knowledge about pygmy marmoset social behavior and ecology (Kinzey 1997). Additionally, pygmy marmosets have been studied in captivity at the Anthropological Institutes of Zurich University in Switzerland and at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, adding to the knowledge of reproductive parameters, development, behavior patterns, and communication (Soini 1988).

HABITAT

Pygmy marmosets occupy mature evergreen forests in and at the edges of periodically inundated river floodplains. They are habitat specialists that prefer areas with no more than two or three meters of standing water for more than three months out of the year and are found in highest densities in river-edge forests (Soini 1988). If they are found in highland areas, it is usually along small, seasonal forest streams that are subjected to frequent, minor flooding (Soini 1988). They utilize vertical strata of the forest from ground level up to 20 m (65.6 ft) and rarely venture into the highest level of the canopy. The understory is composed of reeds, tall grasses, and a few herbaceous plants, vines, shrubs, and saplings. There are also dense thickets formed by bamboo reeds, shrubs, and vines. The tallest trees in this area often have crown heights between 30 and 40 m (98.4 and 131 ft) which support hanging vines and epiphytes (Soini 1982).

Data on rainfall and temperature have been reported for a study site in Peru in the Rio Maniti basin where the rainy season lasts from October to May and the dry season lasts from June to September (Soini 1982; Soini 1986). The highest amount of rain falls in March, with levels reaching more than 340 mm (1.12 ft). During the driest part of the year, only about 150 mm (5.9 in) of rain falls per month. Temperatures remain fairly constant throughout the year, hovering around 27° C (80° F) and 80% humidity (Soini 1982). In Ecuador at the Cuyabeno Faunal Production Reserve, average monthly rainfall from March to August exceeds 250 mm (9.84 in) with considerably drier periods during September through February. Average temperatures fluctuate between 22 and 29° C (71 to 84° F) with the rainy season seeing warmer temperatures (de la Torre &Snowdon 2002). Rivers begin to rise in the beginning of the dry season such that between February and June, the floodplain becomes inundated. During this time, there is an abundance of fruits, but as the floodplain dries out during the dry season, fruits also become noticeably scarce (Soini 1986).

ECOLOGY

Characteristics such as elongated, sharp incisors and claw-like nails are adaptations to the very specific diet of the pygmy marmoset — gums and other exudates. They are exudativoreinsectivores and spend the majority of their time gouging holes into trees or vines with their sharp lower teeth and then eating the gum, sap, resin, or latex that is exuded (Soini 1988). Holes are generally ten to 20 mm (.787 in) wide, four to 18 mm (.157 to .709 in) deep, and nearly perfectly circular. The “oldest” holes on a tree are closer to the ground and they get “newer” farther up the tree, indicating a pattern of usage (Ramirez et al. 1977). Insects make up the other important part of the diet, and grasshoppers are especially coveted. Pygmy marmosets forage in the crown foliage of trees at about five to 15 m off the ground, looking in vine-tangles and shrubby vegetation for spiders, orthopterans, butterflies, moths, beetles, and ants (Soini 1988). While 60 to 80% of their total feeding time is spent on exudates, they spend between 12 and 16% on insects, and supplement their diet with fruits, buds, flowers, nectars, and very occasionally small lizards (Soini 1988; Yépez et al. 2005).

Pygmy marmoset in tree
Callihrix pygmaea

Pygmy marmosets use sleeping sites, or roosts, each night and their day starts shortly after sunrise when all members of the group leave the sleeping site. Sleeping sites are generally made of dense tangles of vines or, on rare occasion, tree holes. Each group has two or three sleeping sites but only use one on a regular basis (Soini 1988; Sussman 2000). In heavy rain or dark, overcast mornings, pygmy marmosets take up to an hour longer to leave the sleeping site. Once it has left the roost, the group travels directly to their primary exudate tree where the marmosets feed for 30 to 90 minutes on gum that has been exuded during the night (Soini 1988). After this feeding bout, there is a shift in activity to more social activities such as huddling, grooming, and playing. After this brief period of rest from foraging, the group begins to focus on insect foraging and exudate foraging until midday when rest and social behavior become the predominant activities. Intense feeding activities begin again in late afternoon until the group travels back to the roost for the night (Ramirez et al. 1977; Soini 1988). The two peaks of exudate feeding occur between 6:00 and 9:00 a.m. and again between 3:00 and 6:00 p.m. (Yépez et al. 2005). Activities are not always coordinated between all group members; some may be foraging for insects while others are feeding on exudates nearby (Soini 1988).

A pygmy marmoset group, ranging in size from two to nine individuals, utilizes a primary exudate tree in its home range until the exudate yield declines at which point they gradually move to a new area, if one is available, in the vicinity of the old home range (Ramirez et al. 1977; Soini 1988). Groups of pygmy marmosets exchange home ranges as one group leaves an area and allows an exudate tree to recover, approximately every few months. When an area remains unoccupied long enough for a tree to begin producing gum in large amounts again, it is a potential new home range for a different group (Soini 1988). Densities of pygmy marmosets are quite high in riverine forests and are up to 233 individuals per km² (90.0 per mi²). Removed from a river’s edge, pygmy marmosets are found in densities closer 50 or 60 individuals per km² (19.3 or 23.2 per mi²) (Soini 1988). With such high densities, home ranges for each group are very small, averaging .003 km² (.001 mi²) but less than .005 km² (.002 mi²), and the horizontal day range within these home ranges about 300 m (.186 mi), but they may travel much farther when considering vertical movement within their home range (Soini 1988). Home ranges of neighboring groups do not overlap and there are few, if any, interactions between groups (Soini 1982).

Other primates that are found in the habitats occupied by pygmy marmosets include Saguinus fuscicollis (saddleback tamarin), Saguinus mystax (mustached tamarin), Saguinus nigricollis (black-mantle tamarin), Saguinus tripartitus (golden-mantle saddle-back tamarin), Callicebus torquatus (collared titi monkey), Callicebus moloch (dusky titi monkey), Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey), and Aotus (owl monkey species) (Soini 1988; Yépez et al. 2005). Saddleback and mustached tamarins sometimes feed from holes gouged by pygmy marmosets and have been seen aggressively chasing the smaller primates from the tree in order to feed. Interactions with other sympatric primates are uneventful (Soini 1988). Exudate holes are also subject to predation by ants, which move in at night when the pygmy marmosets are not feeding and carry away solidified exudate. Excessive predation by ants forces marmosets to abandon a feeding site (Soini 1988).

Because of their extremely small body size, pygmy marmosets are subject to predation by raptors, small felids, and climbing snakes. In some cases, they exhibit mobbing behavior in which the entire group flocks to an intruder, loudly vocalizing and attacking the intruder until it retreats; other times, they remain frozen until the threat has passed (Soini 1988; Kinzey 1997).

Content last modified: June 30, 2005

Written by Kristina Cawthon Lang. Reviewed by Stella de la Torre.

Cite this page as:
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 June 30. Primate Factsheets: Pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pygmy_marmoset>. Accessed 2020 July 14.

 

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOR

Groups of pygmy marmosets range in size from two to nine individuals, but average group size is five. Solitarily ranging individuals of both sexes are also seen. Most troops are composed of one dominant, reproductive female, a reproductive male, and the offspring from one to four litters (Soini 1993). Groups may also contain additional adult males or females that are unrelated to the reproductive female, but neither reproduce. The reproductive female is dominant over all group members, the breeding male is dominant over all males in the group, and, among the offspring, the older siblings are dominant over the younger siblings except for dependent infants, that are not part of the dominance hierarchy (Soini 1988). Dominance can be assessed by which animals displace others at gum feeding sites; dominant animals supplant subordinate individuals.

Pygmy marmoset
Callithrix pygmaea

Daily social behaviors observed among pygmy marmosets include grooming, huddling, and play. Grooming is seen during resting bouts throughout the day and while subadult females groom the dominant female more than vice versa, patterns of grooming between opposite sexes are not discernible (Soini 1988). Huddling is another social activity among pygmy marmosets in which group members remain in close contact during rest. Play is seen mostly among the subadults, juveniles, and infants and can be either solitary or social. Social play is usually chasing or rough-and-tumble play within groups of two or three individuals. Young pygmy marmosets play during resting bouts in the late morning and early afternoon (Soini 1988).

Group size fluctuates as subadult males and females disperse from their natal groups or unrelated adult males and females emigrate from the group (Soini 1993). Subadults become peripheralized over a gradual period of time, being ousted from their group’s primary exudate tree and forced to feed in other areas. During this time period, if the subadult tries to feed in the primary tree, their youngest siblings harass them and may displace them at feeding holes. As this process continues, subadults make increasingly longer forays from their natal group and being to emit calls in an effort to locate a mate. The dominant reproductive female may become intolerant and especially aggressive toward the end of her pregnancy and this may be a cue for the subadult pygmy marmosets in the group to begin dispersing (Soini 1988).

REPRODUCTION

As is seen in other cooperatively breeding species, pygmy marmoset groups generally have only one dominant breeding female while other adult and subadult females remain in the group without breeding and help raise the offspring of the dominant female (Soini 1982; 1988; Schröpel 1998). Rather than beginning to mate when they reach puberty, young pygmy marmoset females are reproductively suppressed when they remain in their natal groups (Carlson et al. 1997). In Ecuador, de la Torre et al. reported on one group that appeared to have two breeding females, but this is not generally seen (2000). There is very limited data on age of reproductive maturity, but female captive pygmy marmosets reach sexual maturity between 15 and 17 months of age and if the young female remains in her natal group, fertility is suppressed through interactions with the dominant breeding female, her mother. There is some evidence that young females exhibit ovarian cycles while living in their natal groups, but they do not reproduce as long as there is a resident dominant female (Carlson et al. 1997). If the breeding female ceases to reproduce or disappears from the group, her oldest daughter will become the next dominant female, often breeding with her father. In captivity, when more than one female gives birth, the offspring of the younger female are often victims of neglect or infanticide by other group members (Schröpel 1998). Males are thought to reach sexual maturity around 16 months (Soini 1988).

Pygmy marmoset in tree
Callithrix pygmaea

Adult males in the group are interested in mating with the dominant female throughout the year, but the breeding female is not receptive to these advances during pregnancy or during the three to six weeks after parturition. The dominant male aggressively intervenes between any males attempting to mate with the dominant female (Soini 1993). Some courtship behaviors exhibited by males include approaching and following the female, strutting, tongue-flicking, sniffing and licking the female’s urine, scent marking using glands on the chest and around the anus and genitals, huddling, and grooming (Soini 1988). Females respond to these behaviors by presenting their genitals to the male, raising their tails into an arch position, scent marking, huddling, and grooming.

Pygmy marmosets do not exhibit birth seasonality but there are two birth peaks during the year, in the months of May and June and again between November and January (Soini 1982). Females can produce two litters each year and give birth to twins about 70% of the time in the wild. In captivity, twins are born 76% of the time, 16% of births are singletons, and triplets are seen in 8% of the births but do not generally survive (Ziegler et al. 1990). Gestation lasts 141 days and the interbirth interval is, on average, between five and seven months (Soini 1988; Ziegler et al. 1990).

PARENTAL CARE

All members of a pygmy marmoset group take some part in rearing the offspring of the dominant female. This greatly contributes to the survivability among wild pygmy marmosets which have a 67% rate of survival to the sixth month of life. Nearly 80% of total mortality in pygmy marmosets occurs within the first two months of life (Soini 1982). Infants are carried constantly for the first one to two weeks of life, but after this, a relatively unusual primate behavior is seen. Parents deposit two-week-old infants in specific, relatively protected places and leave them there for increasing longer time periods while the adults forage in the vicinity (Soini 1988; Heymann &Soini 1999). The most common places that infant pygmy marmosets are left include the crown of the group’s principal feeding tree or of another large tree in the group’s home range. This system of “baby-parking” is probably a way to decrease the cost of infant care which can include energetic costs of carrying the quickly growing infants, increased predator vigilance which distracts from feeding, and lost foraging opportunities because of decreased daily path length. Additionally, infants that are parked rather than traveling on the backs of other group members or moving around freely are less vulnerable to predation by birds of prey (Heymann & Soini 1999). When infants younger than two months are not parked in a tree, they are constantly being carried by one of the group members, with the oldest siblings (both male and female) doing a large majority of the carrying during this time (Soini 1982; 1988).

From age two to five months, the infants start to move independently and are weaned by the end of the third month. Weaning begins as early as eight weeks, around the same time that infants begin to feed independently from already-gouged exudate holes. They do not begin to gouge their own feeding holes until much later in development (Soini 1988). From the age of six to 12 months, pygmy marmosets are considered juveniles and it is during this phase that the dominant female is likely to have another litter. Infant carrying in juveniles is seen starting at six months and they become completely independent feeders, gouging exudate holes and feeding from them. They enter the subadult stage from 12 to 18 months in which the only physical characteristics that differ from adults are their smaller body and genital sizes. Throughout this time of development, play behavior takes up a considerable part of the day. Pygmy marmoset infants, juveniles, and subadults either play solitarily by exploring, hanging, leaping, running, and imitating others or in groups by chasing and tumbling with others (Soini 1988). By 18 months, they are virtually indistinguishable from adults of any other age (Soini 1982).

COMMUNICATION

Rear end view of pygmy marmoset
Callithrix pygmaea

Visual displays by pygmy marmosets are used in situations of threat, in order to convey dominance status, and reproductive status. Mobbing behavior involves elaborate posturing and displays such as strutting, stereotypic, jerky movements, body swaying, and piloerection (Soini 1988). Groups of pygmy marmosets may mob animals such as birds, monkeys, squirrels, snakes, and human observers, if they feel threatened. Mobbing also includes a genital display, seen in multiple other contexts. In the genital display, a pygmy marmoset of either sex turns its back to the observer, arches its back, raises its tail in a stiff arch, and the body and tail hair are ruffled (Soini 1988). This is seen in dominance interactions, where the more dominant individual displays to the subordinate, in intergroup encounters as a form of territorial defense, and in sexual solicitation (Soini 1988).

Other types of communication among pygmy marmosets are chemical and vocal signals. There are three important calls used by pygmy marmosets: “trills,” “J-calls,” and “long calls” (Snowdon &de la Torre 2002). “Trills” are used when feeding on exudates, foraging for insects, or traveling in proximity and are usually given between animals that are no more than five meters (16.4 ft) apart. “J-calls” are comprised of a series of notes quickly repeated by the caller and are heard when animals are between five and 10 meters (16.4 and 32.8 ft) of each other during short-distance locomotion. Both “trills” and “J-calls” serve to mediate interactions between group members and to maintain short-range contact throughout the day and are heard frequently (de la Torre &Snowdon 2002). The “long call” is heard during travel and in response to hearing calls from other groups and is given when pygmy marmosets are spread out over distances greater than 10 meters (32.8 ft) (Snowdon &de la Torre 2002). This is often used by single pygmy marmosets calling for a mate. It is made up of repeated, high-pitched, long notes that sound like “kwee-kwee-kwee…” (Soini 1988).

Pygmy marmosets use scent in chemical communication, rubbing the scent glands found on their chest and around their anus and genitals on a surface and leaving a mark for others to smell. Smell is important to New World monkeys because of their specialized second nose, or vomeronasal organ, which allows them to be especially in tune with chemical cues in the environment (Sussman 2000). Female pygmy marmosets use chemical communication to convey reproductive status to males. During periods of peak fertility, females do not alter the amount or type of scent-marking behavior, but males are able to discern the reproductive state from the marks left on surfaces (Converse et al. 1995).

Content last modified: June 30, 2005

Written by Kristina Cawthon Lang. Reviewed by Stella de la Torre.

Cite this page as:
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 June 30. Primate Factsheets: Pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) Behavior . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pygmy_marmoset/behav>. Accessed 2020 July 14.

 

 

INTERNATIONAL STATUS

CITES: Appendix II (What is CITES?)
IUCN Red List: C. pygmaea: LC (What is Red List?)
Key: LC = Least concern
(Click on species name to see IUCN Red List entry, including detailed status assessment information.)

Pygmy marmoset grasping branch
Callithrix pygmaea

Among the most common of the callitrichines, pygmy marmosets are not threatened because of their high reproductive rate and the ability to exist in edge or disturbed habitats. In parts of their range, habitat destruction is rampant, but has not affected their numbers. Because of their small body size, they are sometimes trapped and sold as pets (de la Torre et al. 2000). One study by de la Torre et al. showed that pygmy marmosets in areas heavily frequented by tourists had some changes in their behavior compared to those living in remote areas (2000). Groups that came in contact with high levels of ecotourists used larger home ranges, .99 ha compared to .6 ha, on average, used higher forest strata, and showed decreased levels of play. There is also some concern that frequent contact with tourists results in long-term reproductive capability of groups. Changes in behavior and reproductive potential caused by human influence may cause serious threats to the long-term viability of the pygmy marmoset population. One way to decrease both habitat destruction and human-caused population decreases is to focus on environmental education. In 2003, such a program was started by Stella de la Torre and her colleagues for children in Ecuador. The curriculum focused on explaining the research they were conducting, explaining basic ecological and behavioral facts about pygmy marmosets, and used games and crafts to illuminate the importance of preserving primates in general, specifically the pygmy marmosets in Ecuador (de la Torre & Yépez 2003). This program is continuing today and is one way to increase awareness of the pygmy marmoset in local communities.

LINKS TO MORE ABOUT CONSERVATION

CONSERVATION INFORMATION

CONSERVATION NEWS

ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN Callithrix pygmaea CONSERVATION

Content last modified: June 30, 2005

Written by Kristina Cawthon Lang. Reviewed by Stella de la Torre.

Cite this page as:
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 June 30. Primate Factsheets: Pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) Conservation . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/pygmy_marmoset/cons>. Accessed 2020 July 14.

 

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Callithrix pgymaea, search PrimateLit. Note that much of the literature uses the taxonomy Cebuella.

REFERENCES

Carlson AA, Ziegler TE, Snowdon CT. 1997. Ovarian function of pygmy marmoset daughters (Cebuella pygmaea) in intact and motherless families. Am J Primatol 43(4): 347-55.

Converse LJ, Carlson AA, Ziegler TE, Snowdon ST. 1995. Communication of ovulatory state to mates by female pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea. Anim Behav 49(3): 615-21.

de la Torre S, Snowdon CT. 2002. Environmental correlates of vocal communication of wild pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea. Anim Behav 63(5): 847-56.

de la Torre S, Snowdon CT, Bejarano M. 2000. Effects of human activities on wild pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Biol Cons 94(2): 153-63.

de la Torre S, Yépez P. 2003. Environmental education: a teaching tool for the conservation of pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea) in the Ecuardorian Amazon. Neotrop Prim 11(2): 73-5.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Heymann EW, Soini P. 1999. Offspring number in pygmy marmosets, Cebuella pygmaea, in relation to group size and the number of adult males. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46(6): 400-4

Kinzey WG. 1997. Synopsis of New World primates (16 genera). In: Kinzey WG, editor. New world primates: ecology, evolution, and behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 169-324.

Ramirez ML, Freese CH, Revilla C J. 1977. Feeding ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, in northeastern Peru. In: Kleiman DG, editor. The biology and conservation of the Callitrichidae; 1975 Aug 18-20; Washington DC. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. p 91-104.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Schröpel M. 1998. Multiple simultaneous breeding females in a pygmy marmoset group (Cebuella pygmaea). Neotrop Prim 6(1): 1-7.

Snowdon CT, de la Torre S. 2002. Multiple environmental contexts and communication in pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea). J Comp Psych 116(2): 182-8.

Soini P. 1982. Ecology and population dynamics of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Folia Primatol 39: 1-21.

Soini P. 1986. A synecological study of a primate community in the Pcaya-Samiria National Reserve, Peru. Prim Cons 7: 63-71.

Soini P. 1988. The pygmy marmoset, Genus Cebuella. In: Mittermeier RA, Coimbra-Filho AF, da Fonseca GAB, editors. Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates, Volume 2. Washington DC: World Wildly Fund. p 79-129.

Soini P. 1993. The ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea: some comparisons with two sympatric tamarins. In: Rylands AB, editor. Marmosets and tamarins: systematics, behaviour, and ecology. Oxford (UK): Oxford Univ Pr. p 257-61.

Sussman RW. 2000. Primate ecology and social structure. Volume 2, New world monkeys. Needham Heights (MA): Pearson Custom. 207 p.

van Roosmalen MGM. 1997. An eastern extension of the geographical range of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Neotrop Prim 5(1): 3-5.

Yépez P, de la Torre S, Snowdon CT. 2005. Interpopulation differences in exudates feeding of pygmy marmosets in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Am J Primatol 66(2): 145-58.

Ziegler TE, Snowdon CT, Bridson WE. 1990. Reproductive performance and excretion of urinary estrogens and gonadotropins in the female pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea). Am J Primatol 22(3): 191-203.

Content last modified: June 30, 2005

 

IMAGES

Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Alba Lucia Morales Jiménez
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Alba Lucia Morales Jiménez
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Allen M. Aisenstein
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Anne Savage
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Anne Savage
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: K. Fink
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Photo: Luiz Claudio Marigo
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Luiz Claudio Marigo
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Luiz Claudio Marigo
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: P. Yépez
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: P. Yépez
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: P. Yépez
Callithrix pygmaea
Photo: Verena Behringer

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